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1S06.; : 

District of New-York, ss. BE IT REMEMBERED, 
on the FirsJ^day of October, in the 
Thirty-Firs^Year of tlie Indepen- 
dence of the United States of Amei'i- 
(L. S.) ca, Joiix TiEBOuT of the said Dis- 

trict, hath deposited in this office, 
the title of a Book, the right whereof 
he claims as proprietor, in the words 
following-, to wit : — 

*' Biographical Memoirs of the late Rev. John Gano, of 
" Frankfort, (Kentucky.) Formerly of tlie City of New-York. 


IN CONFORMITY to the Act of the Con[,n-ess of the said 
United States, entitled, " An act for the eiTtouraj^cment of 
** Learnihj^ hy seciirint^ the copies of Maps, Chuits, and 
** Books to tlie Authors and Proprietors of such Copies, 
** During the times therein mentioned :" 

Clerk of the District of New-York. 



THE following Publication originated in 
the great desire, which some of the children 
of the Author expressed, to have him write a 
history of his life. Being on a visit in Ken- 
tucky, in the winter of 1789 and 1790, I join- 
ed my Brothers in persuading him to indulge 
us, by spending his leisure hours, in commit- 
ting his life to writing. We had often beeri 
entertained by him with anecdotes of his life, 
which we supposed w^ould be instructive and 
amusing to others, and, therefore, had a v»ish 
that the public might reap a benefit from 
, the same source. No doubt, the partiality 
of a child, may feel a peculiar interest in many 
.things relative to a fond, indulgent, and affec- 
tionate pai'ent, which may be uninteresting 
to sti'aiigers. Yet, upon mature deliberation, 
I conceived the publication of his biography, 
might conduce to the edification of serious rea 


eoncerning that period, other than what he 
was concenied in, and so far only as would 
throw light upon his own history. This 
could not be done, without mentioning the 
situation in w^hich he w as placed in the army ; 
and the various campaigns and marches of 
that army. 

Although of small statute, yet he was 
very athletic, and of a remarkable good 
constitution. While I was in Kentucky, 
in the years 1789 and 90, after he liad been 
preaching all day, though much afflicted 
with the influenza, he remarked to me ; that 
he had not been deprived from attending 
public worship for upwards of thirty years, 
on account of indisposition. Of his private 
life, much need not be said. The reader will 
discover his character in the following sheets ; 
but it is but a testimony of respect in me, 
just to say, that as a husband, he was faithful 
and loving; — as a father, kind and indulgent; 
— as a friend, sincerity ever shone in his 
heart; — and as a christian j he \\a3 empliatr- 


cally the follower of Jesus Christ, in all his 
imitable examples. 

That the following Biography may prove 
to the edification of many souls, be instru- 
mental to the building up of the Redeemer's 
kingdom, and redound to the glory and ho- 
nour of God, is the fervent prayer of the pub- 
lic's well wisher, 


Frovidence, ( Rhode-Idandj) Au^st 30, 1806, 


XN compliance with a request of part, if not 
ail of my family, to leave some memorials of 
rny life, (which I should much more cheerful- 
ly undertake, had I spent it to better purpo- 
ses, and more faithfully in the services of my 
God, and society both civil and sacred, to 
which I have long since considered myself 
inviolably to owe every part of it,) the on- 
ly query I ^now have is, whether this will 
not be deemed useless, or whether it is more 
innocently spent than in the omission of it. 
But to begin my life, the scattered scraps of 
^\ hich, only memory at ^sent can collect, 
having none of the remarks at hand, which 
I have heretofore incorrectly committed tq 
paper, which would at least furnish me with 
dates, and without which I am at a loss ?; 


My own life suggests progenitors, ^vhich 
were on my father's side, from France, — on 
my mother's, from Britain. My great grarid- 
father, Francis Gano, brought my grandfather 
Stephen Gano, (when a child,) from Guernsey, 
in Jersey ; it being a tinie of bloody persecu- 
tion. Flight, or the relinquishment of the 
protestant religion, of which he was a pro- 
fessor, were the only means of preserving 
his life. He chose the former. One of his 
neighbours had been martyred in the day, 
and, in the evening, he was determined on as 
as the victim for the next day ; information 
of which, he received in the dead of the 
night. He thereupon chartered a vessel, re- 
moved his family on board, and, in the morn- 
ing, was out of sight of the harbour. Of 
what number his family consisted, I am not 
able to say. On his arrival in America, he 
settled in New-RlSfchelle, iii the state o||||^'- 
York, and lived to the age of one hundred 
and three. My grandfather, Stephen GanOi 
married, I believe, Ann Walton, by whom 
he had many children, some of whom died 
m youth ; those who lived to maiTy, were 


Daniel, Francis, James, John, Lewis, Isaac, 
and three daughters, Sarah, Catharine, and 
Susannah, the last of whom lived to the age 
of eighty-seven. My father was the first of 
the beforementioned. He married Sarah Brit- 
ton, daughter of Nathaniel Britton, of Staten- 
Island. Her mother was a Stilwell, who 
made a profession of religion when about 
twenty years of age, and continued a member 
of the Baptist church till her death ; her age 
was near an hundred. 

My parents continued living on Staten- 
Island, till they had two children, Daniel, and 
Jane. They then removed to New-Jersey, 
and setded in Hopewell, Hunterdon county, 
where were born Stephen, Susannah, myself, 
Nathaniel, David, and Sarah. At the age of 
six years, I well remember being seized with 
a^l^Ke sickness in the spring, from which 
I did- not recover till the fall ; during which 
time, as I have since understood, the linen 
ivas procured in which to lay me out, sup- 
posing I was actually dead, as I lay a great 
part of the tin>€ perfectly senseless. When 


I recovered, I was sent to a common comitry 
school, and had a strict religious education. 
My mother ])eing a pious Baptist, which she 
publicly professed in her youth, and my father 
being a steady Presbyterian, took care that 
I was made well acquainted with, the West- 
minster confession of faith and catechism, 
which before my conversion, summoned my 
attention to preaching. If the sentiments I 
then heard disclosed, answered to the doc- 
trines in which I was taught, they met my 
approbation ; and if not, my displeasure was 
the consequence. 

*In early life I had some severe convic- 
tions of sins, conscious I must die and go to 
judgment ; and that I must be renewed by 
gi'ace, or perish as a sinner. But these con- 
^ ictions vv ere transient and of short duration. 
As I advanced in jears, I progressed ii^j^h- 
ful vanity and sin. I became exceedingly 
anxious to excel my companions in work 
and amusements, and especially in their coun- 
try frolics and dances. 1 was frequently ad- 
monished by my Parents for working to 


excess, bat much more frequently for my 
attachment to vanity. I cannot charge my- 
self with irreverence to my parents ; but 
when my pious mother v/ould expostulate 
with me, I seized the opportunity to vindicate 
myself. One morning when I came into her 
presence, haying been out late the night be- 
fore, she fixed her eyes upon rae, said not a 
word, and the pious parental tear stole down 
her cheek, which struck me with more con- 
viction than I ever remembered to have felt 
before, which I could not eradicate by any 
reply, and which caused these rejections to 
sink deep in my mind: " Do my present 
follies cause so much pain to the most pious 
and most tender of parents, what must be the 
consequence, when they recoil on my ov n 
soul ! Recoil they must, if not before, at least 
in the day of judgment ; and there I must 
se«|lbis parent, whose tears now condole my 
case, smile an acquiescent consent m the 
dreadful sentence of eternal banishment from 
the righteous judge." These reflections 
caused many resolutions, which were shame- 
fully broken for a time ; yet a sense of my 


dangerous situation, would, now and then, 
fill my mind \vith melancholy sensations, and 
doth even iioxv, while writing it. 

When I was about fifteen years of age, my 
brother Stephen, \\ ho was then in his twen- 
tieth year, died. He was, before, and in the 
first part of his illness, deeply concerned for 
the salvation of his soul, of which, before his 
death, he professed a strong hope. When 
he expressed this hope, and what he said 
under his conviction, greatly engaged my 
resolution to seek an acquaintance, if possi- 
ble, with Christ. Probably, great part of this 
exercise flo^^cd from natural affections, as 
time gradually wore it aw»y. This has 
caused me to omit many impressions which 
wdiich had some appearance of convictions, 
such as escapes from apparent danger of 
death, by various means incidental to y^M^ ; 
the deaths of others Stc. &:c. Between t\A-o 
and three years after this, the dysentery seiz- 
ed the family excepting my father and myself. 
They were brought exceeding low, and a 
brother and two sisters fell victims to the 


disorder ; one of whom was in her twentiedi 
year. It was the more alarming to me, as 
it brought to my mind a prediction, which 
had been early imposed on my father, and 
w hich I had often heard him mention with 
apparent cheerfulness. Which prediction 
was, that he would have many children, 
(as in reality he had,) and that three of them 
should die in their t\ventieth year. As I was 
next in point of years, this thought continu- 
ally haunted me, and made me sensible that 
I was not prepared for such an awful change."-^ 
Whenever I could dispel those gloomy 
thoughts, I w^as more at ease, and more vile 
and vain than ever, which continued and even 
increased until the christmas before I was 
nineteen years of age. 

That tinie, I had determined to spend a 
jmi'dl evening with my frolicing companions. 
As, however, there \A'as a sermon to be 
preached on that day, near to the place v/here - 

* My next younger brcther, soon after 'dns, died in the 
twentieth year of his age. 


I lived, I concluded to attend both. After 
sermon, my mind turned on the inconsisten- 
cy of my conduct, in spending the day, where 
God was served, and the night, in the service 
of the devil. This led me to consider more 
closely than ever, that if a day was regarded 
as the birth of Christ, a holy Saviour, through 
whom alone we could look for salvation, — 
how improper it was to spend it in open re- 
bellion ! This brought me to a resolution, — 
that I would spend my time in a more con- 
sistent manner, than I had done — and, bles- 
sed be God, before the year terminated, I was 
brought under serious impressions, which 
arose from a conversation wdth a person, 
whom I supposed really pious and sincere, 
lie advanced something, which my own soul 
told me v/as just; but vainly supposing I 
could shake his l^elief, I readily undertook 
to argue with him, w^hich so confused him, 
that he requested me to stop ; w ith w hich I 
( hcerfully complied, beirkg fully satisfied w ith 
the victory I had obtained. We parted, and 
in a few minutes it occurred to my mind, 
that I had acted improperly ; —that I had 


been instigated by the devil, to oppose truth 
and glory. I appeared to myself to be a 
worshipper of Satan ; and it seemed that all 
the advantages I possessed, were employed 
to the dishonour of God ; and I thought it 
was a miracle of mercy and grace, that he 
did not make me an everlastinfir monument 
of his displeasure. It became my ardent 
wish, that if there was a possibility oF pardon 
for my sins and transgressions, I might not 
rest either night or day until I obtained it : 
which was in some measure the case, al- 
iliough my trials under conviction were of 
long continuance. I embraced every oppor- 
tunity in my power, in attending preaching, 
reading godly books, and praying either 
mentally or aloud. There was a total change 
in my company and conduct. Bat I soon 
found by experience, what I had early leai'ii- 
ed from my Bible, that a change of heart 
was necessary ; and that the power of God's 
grace only could accomphsh it; which, I 
was afraid, would never be granted. I was, 
however, determined to seek it to the latest 
hour of my existence. I cannot express th^ 
B 2 

18 jMemoirs op the 

anguish, with ^vhld\ my mind was frequently 
oppressed, with tlie idea of being eternally 
banished from God, in endless des}>air, to 
everlasting destruction. I saw I deserved it, 
and at times concluded it was unavoidable. 
My prayers were selfish and sinful. I often 
thought that I offended God in asking for par- 
don, when justice appeared so pointedly against 
it. In short, I appeared to myself the vilest of 
sinners, more worthless and odious than the 
meanest reptile, and the greatest h}'pocrite in 
the world. It appeared that what I felt was 
only natural remorse, and not a genuine con- 
viction that God's wrath was the prelude of 
his lasting displeasure. Impressed with these 
feelings I concluded I was willing to be saved, 
and that if I waited the assistance of God, it 
was all I could do : for it was by his grace 
that I could be saved. This in some mea- 
sure afforded me a kind of deluded ease, un- 
til I heard a sermon from these words, in 
Solomon's Song, 3, xi, Go forth O ye daugh- 
ters of Zion, and behold King Solomon^ £r'f . 
From which discourse I plainly saw the alien- 
ation of my heart, that the fault was owing 


to myself if I vv as not saved, and that God 
was waiting to be gracious. Never before, 
had I seen so much of the evil of my hard 
and obstinate heart. 

From that time, the nature of my convic- 
tion was altered, and my grief was greater. 
I knew that I must be changed, and that it 
was to be effected by God, and that he would 
affect it was my most fervent wish. But how 
he could be just and save mc I knew not : 
that he could be just and condemn me, ap- 
peared plain. In this state, I remained for 
some time. And it was some satisfaction to 
my mind, that God would secure his own 
glory, and the honour of his son. In this 
temper of mind, the way of salvation, through 
the life, death, and mediation, of the glori- 
ous Saviour, appeared plain. I contemplated 
on the amazing wisdom and goodness of 
God, and condescension of Christ, My soul 
was enraptured, amazed, and confounded, 
that with all my ingratitude, I could st;ll be 
saved. My mind was enlightened, and my 
guilt and feai* of punishment was renpioved. 


Yet, notwithstanding the aiteratioa I felt, 
I am not sensible that I thought of its 
being a real conviction ; 1 was afraid my 
convictions would not be lasting ; and I pray- 
ed for a continuance of them. I was con. 
strained at times to rejoice in God and his 
salvation ; and in this state continued some 
time, until a sermon from these words, with 
light and power fasted on my mind : *' JesuSy 
thou So?2 of Davidy have mercy on me,^'* I 
trust they were so applied, that I could not 
put them from me. They opened the way 
of salvation, the suitableness, fulness, and 
willingness of God^ and I was enabled to 
appropriate them to myself, and rejoice in 
Christ. This was the time, from uhich I 
dated my conversion, and I think I walked 
in the light of God's countenance, aitd had 
many blessed promises, which strenr?;thehed 
and confirmed my hope in, and hum bled me 
before God. 

About this time, there were a number of 
young people of my acquaint luce in the neigh- 
bourhood, who were under serious comxin 


for their souls, and as I had, in my distress, 
warned them of their exposure to the wTath 
©f God, I could now point out to them, Christ, 
and the method of salvation through him.— 
As my soul felt what I said, it seemed as if 
God made them sensible of it. We assem- 
bled, on evenings, to pray and converse ; 
and I now believe that this was a useful part 
of my life. I was inclined to become a preach- 
er, but thought it my duty to wait and pur- 
sue literary acquirements. Indeed, I had not 
then made an open profession, or johied the 
church. For some reasons, I wished to join 
that of the Presbyterian ; and as a commun- 
ion season was approaching, I expected some 
examination. I took the Westminster con- 
fession of faith, and the Bible, with a view 
honestly to profess them. The doctrines 
appeared thoroughly grounded, and per- 
fectly consonant with the Bible, until I came 
to the doctrine of baptism. The proofs 
there adduced, fell far short of my expecta- 
tions, and appeared foreign to the point. — 
I then took the Bible, especiafy the New 
Testament, and searched it for months to- 


gether; and enquired for, and obtained all the 
disputes, especially in favour of iiiiant bap- 
tism, that I could hear of; I, however, could 
find nothing that seemed to me to amount to 
a divine warrai^t. I went to a presbytery on 
purpose to converse w4th a Mr. Tennant, or 
rather to be instructed by him. A favorable 
opportunity presented, and ifom my attach- 
ment to the man, and a deference to his opi- 
nion, and the confidence he appeared to havt 
of the justice of infant baptism, I was induc- 
ed to embrace his sentiments. But on my 
road home, it turned in my mind, that this 
was not the way I had obtained the hope of 
salvation, or consonant with my former reso- 
lutions, to make the w^ord of God my only 
rule of faith and practice. Let Mr, Tennant 
be ever so good a man, his belief, is not a di- 
vine w^arrant for me to act upon. Before I 
got home, I was determined to try fartlicr 
to see for myself. 

Soon after, Mr. Miller, a baptist minis- 
ter, inquiring of me w hy I did not profess 
Christ openly, and join seme church, I told 


him my difficulty. He replied, that God^s 
word and spirit would direct me, and if I at- 
tended to them impartially, they would re- 
move my doubts ; and if they did not make 
Xac a Baptist, he did not wish to do it. This 
conversation led me to enquire if I had done 
so. I was soon convinced I had not ; but 
had only searched for something to confirm 
me in the doctrine of infant baptism, which I 
} ad received from my education. I really 
think, that if any person was ever induced to 
take the word of God in hand, with a fervent 
desire to be free from all prepossessions, to 
see the truth as it rea ly was, and to let the 
Bible be their guide, I was* A number of 
inconsistencies peqjlexed me in my infant 
baptism, and Providence gave me an opportu- 
nity to disclose some of them. I happened 
to spend an evening with Mr. Tennai t, and 
some of my Presbyterian friends, when I was 
drawn into the conversation, from the suppo- 
sition that I \vas the person who conversed 
with him at the presbytery. He asked m.e, 
if I was yet satisfied, or wished to converse 
farther on the subject. I told him I did so> 


provided it would be agreeable to bring in all 
my objections ; with which he complied. I 
then related to him the thoughts with which I 
left him, and those which occurred after, and 
mentioned, that after conversing with him, I 
had an opportunity of attending the baptism 
of a child, when the minister, in his prayer, 
uttered these words : *' Lord bless so much 
of this element as is used in this ordinance, 
the washing avvay of original pollution," 
which struck me very forcibly ; he however 
condemned it. I also remarked to him, that 
the minister in speaking, called it a seal of the 
covenant of grace, which I told him appeai'ed 
to be sa}'ing too much of any external ordi- 
nance. That the blood of Christ was the 
seal, and that He also, in my view, was the 
covenant ; and that God's w ord and spirit 
applying to our consciences was a seal. I 
wished, if I was v\ rong, that he would put 
me right. I also mentioned, that I had my 
doubts, whether baptism m as a substitute for 
circumcision, both being in use at i.he same 
time ; an I even ought to be, as *' tiie cutting 
oif of the Messiah," and the shedding of his 


blood, was pointed at in that ordinance till 
it was accomplished ; that the same subjects 
relating to both were useless, if one was the 
substitute for the other. — Their subjects were 
different, and the end and design of the ordi- 
nances appeared to me to be different. I 
mentioned these, and other difficulties, with a 
sincere desire of being instructed; but I had 
neither my doubts confirmed or removed. I 
was however much pleased with the goodness 
and candour of the man, who closed with this 
address : *' Dear young man, if the devil can- 
not destroy your soul, he will endeavour to 
destroy your comfort and usefulness; and 
therefore do not be always doubting in this 
matter. If you cannot think as I do, think 
for yourself." I then endeavoured to learn 
my duty from the new testament, as being a 
new testament ordinance, and found that it 
was from Heaven, had its authority from 
God, and became binding by a positive com- 
mand. The characters of those, who i^ere 
to be baptized were, disciples, penitent belie- 
vers, and such as had received the holy ghost. 
I could not find by any of the apostles' prac- 


tice, that any others were encouraged or per- 
mitted, unless they intruded as Simon Magus 
did. And the apostles declared him to have 
no part or lot in that matter. The end and 
design was to fulfil righteousness — to answer 
a good conscience. All things considered, I 
could see no ground for infant baptism in the 
new testament. I next turned my attention 
to the mode, which appeared so plain in the 
example of Christ, in the places where he 
administered, and the reasons why he admin- 
istered in those places, insomuch, that I was 
soon established in the belief, that imrnersion 
was the only mode, which could be gathered 
from the new testament ; and with this mode 
my conscience pressed me to comply. I then 
addressed my father on the subject. I told 
him '* his constant religious care over me 
entitled him to all the gratitude I was capable 
of rendering, yet I must beg his iixlulgcnce. 
I believed he was conscientious in having me 
baptized in my infancy, as he had supposed, 
and I had tried to suppose, it right. But, on 
the whole, I was convinced it was my duty to 
f)e baptised by immersion ; and that it relied 


on the profession of my own faith, if the 
church would receive me. " He replied, '* that 
what he did, he thought right, and in the dis- 
charge of his own conscience. If I v/as con- 
scientious, (and he Vv^as thankful to God, that 
he had reason to believe I was, from his ob- 
servance of my searching the scriptures and 
the time I had taken therein, and the books 
I had read, I had his full and free consent ; 
and it was my duty to make profession. — 
That whenever I went to offer myself, he 
'would go with me, and give the church his 
consent, and answer any inquiries respecting 
my life, if they chose to make any; and 
that he would go and see me baptized." — - 
This he did; and there were a number bap- 
tized with me. I believe from this time, 
my father changed his opinion on the sub- 
ject, although he never confessed it, until a 
few months before his death ; which happen- 
ed in the eighty -seventh year of his age. — 
Mr. Isaac Eaton preached his funeral sermon 
from these words: '' Feiv and evil have the 
days of the years of the Ufe'''^ of thy sei^ani 
" been^ and have not attained unto the days of 


the years of the life of my fathers, in the day^ 
of their pilgrimage, ' ' 

After I had joined the church, I \\ as trea- 
ted more hke an o'd, than a youiig member. 
I was soon made a messenger to the assccia- 
tioi; ; and to the Scotts Plain church, with 
Elder J. Stout, to obtain staled supplies to 
keep up communion seasons from Mr. Mil- 
ler, one of the most useful ministers in that 
da}\ Hopewell church had no stated settled 
minister. Some time after, we were sent tq 
South- Hampton church, to obtain a worthy 
young minister that was newly come into the 
ministery ; Mr. Isaac Eaton. After obtain- 
ing consent from the church, by his request, 
tve went to Montgomery to his father, who 
was an old minister there, whose approba- 
tion we also obtained. He was not only a 
great acquisition and a useful minister to 
Hopewell church, but to the churches all 
around. God's | ower attended the w ord, a 
considerable addition was made to the church, 
and numbers ^\ ere added. I was also bles- 
sed with a judicious and useful minister and 


friend, who was able to instruct me in the 
classics, and who was desirous to do it. I 
endeavoured to arrange matters, and devote 
myself to study. I began, in the hopes of 
surmounting many difficulties. An awful 
sense of the greatness of the work of the min- 
istery, and that I might be able to preach 
with success, if I made some advances in 
study, induced me to cultivate an acquaint- 
ance with literature. I shuddered at tlie 
thought of becoming a preacher,, and finally 
relinquished it. 

I commenced a piece of business, and en- 
gaged a man to assist me in it, which I did 
merely to protract my studies. The young 
man falling sick the morning we designed to 
begin, counteracted my resolution of delaying 
my studies. I however looked upon it as the 
hand of providencCo My Father called on 
me, that morning, to attend family worship. 
The chapter I read, adminstered such con- 
viction to my soul, that I was induced to re- 
linquish the business I had undertaken. I 
went that day and began the study of the 


Latin Grammar, and probably, for the iirst 
three months, made as great proficiency as any 
person. But I was so terrified with the im- 
portance of the ministerial work, and con- 
ceiving that neither providence, nature, or 
grace, had qualified me for that arduous of- 
fice, that I determined to relinquish the idea, 
and return home, and settle myself in a sit- 
uation, when it would be impossible to pros- 
ecute my studies ; and of course the minis- 
tery. I meant, however, to live a steady and 
uniform christian life. I was much in pray- 
er, and enjoyed a nearness to God in his 
word. His promises were precious; the 
doctrines opened and comforted my soul. 

I began to think of a companion for life, 
but Vv-as entirely at a loss for an object ; for 
although I had kept much company, yet 
from my conversion till now, (nearly three 
years,) it was of a religious kind. I now 
joined in the purchase of a plantation, by 
which I V, as involved in debt, which I ex- 
pected to adjust by the proceeds of the fiirm. 
Here mv conscience dictated my duty to 


implore the direction of God, and acknow- 
ledge him in all my ways. I determined to 
spend the night in prayers to God, and 
accordingly went to a solitary place; that 
whether my prayers were mental or vocal, 
they might be out of the reach of the human 
ear. While I was on my knees, imploring 
the direction of God, these words powerfully 
impressed my mind : ^* Go forth and preach 
the GospeU'* I remained on my knees pon- 
dering over them for some time, and begged 
of God not to suifer me to be deluded, and 
that every spirit might be restrained but his 
own. These words followed in my mind 
with equal force : '■' It is I^ be not afraid — be 
not faithless, but believing;'^'' v^hich Avords, 
and others similar to them, reiterated in my 
soul. I rose, confounded; my breast heaved 
with oppression. I pondered again, and, 
at length, spoke out. I raised many ob- 
jections ; — my present circumstances; — my 
weakness and my vileness; — but all these ob- 
jections were so entirely answered in Chiist's: 
sufficiency, and fulness of his promises, thi\t 
I did not dare to raise any more, I thought^ 


for a moment, of yielding, and walked to the 
house ; when a new difficulty seized my 
mind : — that I must look to God for a deter- 
mination. I withdrew again a distance off, 
avid fell down as before ; I think I may say, 
with the deepest reverence, and anxiety of 
mind for direction ; and to be saved from de- 
lusion, obstinacy, or presumption ; and that 
I might not attribute those things to God, 
which arose from the works of the devil ; or 
those things to the devil, which came from 
God. In this posture, these words seized 
upon my mind : * ^ Thou sluilt speak to many 
people,'''^ ** / will send thee far hence, '^'^ 
" Say not I am a child, I will he with theeJ^'* 
'* / will he with thy lips,'' " Arid thou 
sfialt speak to all, to whom T send thee.'' ** 7 
have made thee this day, a hrazen wall and 
an iron sinew," And many more passages 
of scripture followed in my mind, till I \\ as 
obliged to cry out, '* it is enough, I ^^i]l 
doubt no more." With this resolution, I 
arose, went to the house, and at a late hour 
of night went to bed. But alas ! wretch that 
I was, and still am, I scarcely laid my head 


on the pillow, before such an opposition 
iigain rose in my mind against the work, and 
even against God for calling me to it, that 
I even wished for death. But oh ! the dis- 
mal hours which seized my mind ; the temp- 
tat'ons ai^kd awful suggestions on the the one 
hand, and the promises and directions from 
God's vvord on the other, alternately, that I 
think I may call it the most excruciating 
night, that my soul ever experienced. Al- 
though it is fifty } ears since, the sensations I 
then felt are still fresh upon my memory ; and, 
even now, while writing, give me an vnicom- 
mon feeling. It is with shame that I write, 
that nearly two years elapsed, before my 
pride, my obstinacy, and my unbelief, were 
so conquered, that I could fully yield to the 
clearest conviction. It deprived me of much 
sleep, and all the cravings of nature ; — and 
my body was emaciated. Yet, I frequently 
had seasons of great comfort, and repeated 
promises. I concluded at times, to die un- 
der these impressions, rather than yield. 
Frequently, when I ^^ ould endeavour to pray, 
these texts would bear on my mind : ''i 


have told you and ye did not heai\ wherefore 
will ye hear it again.^'' ** Why will you he 
sf7'icken any more^ ye will revolt more and 
more,'''' I could not conceal my a, isicty of 
mind, akhough I endeavoured to do it, as 
much as possible, by retirement and silence; 
but my most intimate religious friends would 
discover it. 

I became more industrious, and exercised 
myself a great deal. One day I went early 
into the field, to plough it free from stumps 
and stones. Soon after I started, this text 
weighed heavily on my mind : *' Warn the 
people^ or their blood will I require at your 
hands y The pangs w^hich afflicted me so 
heavily, that, although it rained plentifully, I 
was insensible of it. Paul's expressions took 
such hold of my thoughts, that I regarded 
not what I w^as about. ^^ Jf I do this wil- 
linglij^ I have my reward^ but if not a dispen- 
sation of the gospel is committed unto me.'''' 
" Necessity is laid upon me^ woe is me if I 
preach not the gospel.''' One objection more 
arose in my mind; — tliat providence was 


against it, and God's spirit and providence 
generally accor led. If the church should 
call me, and I could extricate myself from 
my worldly concerns, I should devote my- 
self to the duty of the ministery. 

About this time, Mr. Eaton came to see 
and converse with me. He took an opportu- 
nity, privately, to inform me, that he had for 
a long time observed an appearance of my 
mind being much depressed. That he thought 
it his duty to enquire, and mine to divulge, 
^v'hat it was ; whether he or the church, had 
done any thing to make me dissatisfied. I 
told him, I had no reason to complain ; what 
was between God and my own soul, I did not 
wish to disclose to any person whatever. I 
was, however, constrained to give him some 
account, for which I was afterwards very 
sorry, although he gave me tender and faith- 
ful advice. The next church meeting, he 
called me aside, and told me he thought it his 
duty to mention me to the church ; and if 
they thought proper to examine me, he would 
be satisfied. I begged him to desist for that 


time. He replied it was his duty, and he 
should do it. I found great reluctance in this 
procedure. They examined me, gave me 
a text, and appointed a time for me to preach 
before the church. They left it to me, that, 
if, after I had preached, I chose to devote my 
time to study, they would submit to it ; other- 
wise, they should continue my trials. Provi- 
dence opened the way, and, in a short time 
after, I went to studying, in which I continued 
some years, and sincerel}^ felt as if I was in 
the performance of my dut^^ 

Although my studies were dry, yet I had 
intervals of much spiritual comfort. One 
or two instances I must mention. My appli- 
cation to study was close, and the change of 
life from an industrious and stirring, to a 
sedentary one, probably was the cause of a 
severe fit of sickness. I had a high fever and 
was in much pain of body ; but the pain of 
mind, for some time, so far exceeded it, and 
being exhausted by vreakness, that I was 
tempted to think, if I was in ni}' duty, I 
should not be impeded by Providence. The 


coniiict was severe for some time ; but through 
the grace of God, I had sucli establishing 
views of an interest in Christ, the well or- 
dered covenant of grace, and the doctrines 
and promises of the gospel, that I supposed 
my soul was fixed firm on that eternal rock. 

After m.y recovery, I prosecuted my stu- 
dies, and used more exercise. The gentle- 
man, under whom I studied, was a Presby- 
terian minister, from the State of Connecti- 
cut. He had, at that time, a number of 
youth studying the classics. The class to 
which I belonged were studying the Greek 
Testament : reading that chapter in John 
where Christ told Peter, ** he that is wash- 
ed needeth not, save to wash his feet, but is 
clean evert/ whit :''^ and although it was not 
my verse to read, the master stopped the 
scholai', and turned to me, and said-—'* as we 
think differently of baptism, do you not think 
that these words suggest strongly, that a little 
water is as well as a great deal. " I replied, that 
they were as much in favour of sprinkling, 
as any in the bible. This abrupt answer. 


caused him to order the class back to their 
studies ; but he detained me, to reason with 
me. I instantly rmdc a confession, that I 
had been inadvertent, and that for all his 
liberal treatment to me he deserved a more 
submissive reply. He still persisted, and 
told me my arguments v/ei'C weak* I replied, 
that I was not on an equal footing with him, 
I had been an aggressor, I was his pupilj and 
was afraid he felt injured at my offence, and 
wished him to pass it over as a piece of in- 
advertency. He still insisted, and prombed, 
tliat in the debate, lie would allow me to be 
on an equal footing with himself. As I could 
not avoid it, we were closely engaged till 
night. In the morning, when I went to 
school, he handed me this thcsijs : *' That 
which God has once commanded, and ne\ er 
forbidden, remains a duty, and cannot be sm- 
fal." I saw, that it alluded to chiklren's 
being taken into tJie Jewish clnirch with their 
parents. I v/ished to avoid any further debate. 
I asked till noon to fill up the thesis — and 
filled it thus : '' But God has commanded 
the seventh day as a Sabbath, and ne\^tr lor- 
bidden it, and therefore it remains a duty 


and cannot be sin." This he called me to 
defend. This ended our former dispute. 

Princeton College, was at that time kept 
in Newark, New-Jersey ; and governe#by 
President Burr, with whom I was a great 
fevourite. I frequently attended their public 
examinations, and had encouragement from 
the President, that I might enter college if I 
chose, when found upon examination to be 
fit for it. I found my advantages great, not 
being confined to any particular class, but 
was at liberty to make all the progi'css I was 
able to, in any branch of study. I intended, 
when I did enter, to enter the senior class ; 
but unfortunately I was taken sick, before I 
had made but very little progress in the clas- 
sics. My sickness was probably owing to 
my too close application to stud}', and the 
want of exercise. The doctors and my 
friends, ad\'ised me to take a journey, and 
relax my mind from study. 

Mr. Miller, of Scotch Plams, and Mr. 
ThoR^as, of Montgomery, \\ ere appointed by 


the association to travel into Virginia, pursu- 
ant to two applications ; — One from Opocken, 
where one Loveall, an Arminian preacher, 
had baptised a number of persons, and had 
esfiiblished a church. But he being licenti- 
ous in his life, was turned out of the church, 
and went off. When they discovered them- 
pelves destitute, and without fellowship, they 
applied for advice and assistance to the asso- 
ciation ; and promised that they w ould com- 
ply v»'ith any direction. Mr. Miller, had for- 
merly visited these people in some of hi^ 
joumies ; and God had blessed his labours, 
by the conversion of several souls. The 
other application was from a young church, 
constituted by Mr., which had no 
ministerial assistance ; and which wanted the 
ordinances administered. A Mr. Sutton, 
from Old-Town, and myself, accompanied 
tlic minister, as far as the Potomac, where 
the rpads separated ; — one to Opocken, the 
otlier to Blue-rid^!;e, or Kotockton. Here the 
ministers concluded to separate for the pre- 
sent. Mr. Sutton, to go- with Mr. Miller, 
and myself to go with Mr. Thomas. We 


were to spend the next Lord's-day in sepa- 
rate towns, and the Wednesday foHowing to 
meet at Opocken. 

Mr. Miller, appointed a meeting m the 
evening. We put up at a tavern, where 
there was a noisy profane company. It beings 
in the evening when we arrived, I called for 
the landlord, and asked if we could have a 
room apart from those people. He said we 
could ; I asked him to shew us the room, 
and then gave orders respecting our horses* 
Through favour to us, he stopped mto their 
room to still them, which so offended them, 
that they instantly burst into our room, and 
one of them demanded, with some impreca- 
tions, if we were Nev/-iights. I told him we 
were civil travellers, and neither wished to 
disturb them, nor be disturbed ourselves. 
He held his list over my head, and pointed 
to one of his comrades, and said, that man 
can beat any one in the room. I replied, that 
he looked much more like a man, than 
he acted ; and that I dared to ^ay, he and 

Aerest of the gentlemen were ashamed ot 
c 2 


his comparr}^ and conduct. 'At this instant 
the landlord came in. I immediately desir- 
ed him to turn that fellow out of the room, 
that we might converse with the others. He 
did so. I then began with the others. I 
told them, that in that man, we had a stri- 
king instance of the depravity of human 
natm-e. — That it could not be possible, as 
we came from the hands of God, designed 
for sociability and mutual good will, that we 
possessed a propensity to make one unhappy. 
They all sat decently and heard me out, and 
then got up, gave us their hands, and wished 
us a good joiu'ney. This brings to my- mind 
2iXi instance which happened some time before. 

In going from school to visit my parents, 
who lived about forty miles distant, night 
overtook me. I missed my road, and was 
insensible of it ; till stopping at the d(30i' of « 
tiplmg house to make some inquiry, the land* 
lord informed me of it. The deor being 
open, I saw a number of men playing cards. 
One of them observing me, came instantly to 
the door, and offered to pilot me. jDisliking 


the motion, but much more the appearance 
of the man, I told him there was no occasion 
for it ; I could find the way on being inform- 
ed. He persisted, and said he would go 
with me as far as one Culls, who kept a pub- 
lic house on the road, that I ought to have 
gone by. This Cull I knew to be a ma- 
gistrate. I rode off, and he soon overtook 
me. I conceived the man had some bad de- 
sign ; and I knew I had some thick woods to 
pass through. I told him if he would pilot 
me to the tavern, I would treat him. We 
soon got into the right road ; and I knew we 
soon had to pass another house of evil fame. 
When we arrived at it, he asked me to stop, 
for he must. I told him, no, I knew the way. 
He said he would soon overtake me. I rode- 
some distance, stopt, and observed his mo- 
tions. He called out a man from the house, 
^nd whispered to Iiim. The man went in, 
and spon returned with a large coat, which 
he. ^took, together vvith something which he 
put under the coat. Ithen pushed on, heover- 
took me, and began to converse. He ask*- 
ed me. if JL did not sometimes meet with diffi-^ 


culties on the road. I told him none, but 
what I got through with. He asked, if I had 
not sometimes a charge of money with me: 
I told him, none, but what I had use for. lie 
asked me, if I did not ahvays go aimed. I 
told him, those, who gave me occasion to use 
them, should best know that. He said with 
an oath, he thought so. As we wtte enter- 
ing a dark spot in the woods, I kept my 
horse close to his side, aixl put one hand on 
his thigh, that I could feel every motion he 
made. In this way, we passed through the 
wood to a wide plain, which I knew^ lasted 
to the tayern, Iwent to the opposite side of 
the road, and kept my eyes upon him. Be- 
ing near to the tavern ^ I told him he should 
soon ha\xi a treat. He said, he did not want 
to stop, if I v\^as going iluther, he would bear 
me company a few miles. Having arrived at 
the tavern, I turned up to the door, and cal^ 
led for the landlord. The man kept urging 
me to go on. The landlord being in bed, 
asked who w^as there. I told him it was his 
duty to come and see. He came to the door, 
opened it, and asked what I wanted, I m^ 


swered, the first thing was to take that man 
into custody. The man turned his horse, 
and rode off' in haste. After telling the jus- 
tice tlie story, I rode home to my fathers. — 
From tliis digression I return to my narra- 

Mr. Thonxas and myself, the next morn- 
ing, proceeded on our journey, and reached 
the neighbourhood, where divine service was 
performed, the next day : a num'^er gather- 
ed together, and were very attentive. After 
Mr. Thomas had preached two sermons, 
the people kept their seats. He then spoke 
in a low voice to me: *' I vrish you w^ould 
say something to the people, as they continue 
in waiting." He was o^'erheard by some, 
who instantly begged I v/ould. I replied, 
that I had no right to preach ; but if they 
wished to hear a repetition of the substance 
Vvhich had just been delivered to them; and 
if they would allow me a few minutes to col- 
lect, and recollect; I would endeavour tore- 
peat it. This, (they consenting to,) I did; 
Mr. Thomas, appointed a sermon the nG%% 


day tu elve miles distant ; and also another in 
that neighbourhood, at the same time. I 
thought it \vas a mistake, and whispered to 
Mr. Thomas, he had made a mistake. He 
said, he had not. I saw through his design, 
and meant to stick by him, I told him, l5id 
not mean because I had got abroad, to preach 
without licence. He acknowledged he had 
been precipitate ; but begged me to stay and 
meet the people, and pray and converse with 
them, if I did no more. I observed their 
anxiety to hear, and a considerable number 
gathering together, I began to pray and ex- 
hort. Their zeal to hear encouraged me to 

Among them was an elderly- man, who 
professed to be a friend, or Quaker ; who tar- 
ried till the others had generally retired. -r- 
He told the man of the house, he wanted to 
converse with the speaker. As soon as he 
found an opportui^ity, he thus began addres- 
sing himself to me : *' I came on purpose to 
day to htar thee preach, and believe a great 
deal that I heard, I was brought up a friend. 


aiid did not believe some of thy doctrines ; 
and I want to converse with thee on the sub- 
ject, if we can do it in love/' I told him I 
was perfectly willing; and that if we did con- 
verse it should be in love ; for if I felt other- 
wise myself, or if I saw him warm, I should 
quit. I desired him to mention what he had 
to say. He said, he understood me *' to hold 
•election, original sin," and if I rightly recol- 
lect, " regeneration by grace, and final per- 
severance in grace, &c." I told him, he had 
understood me right. I did hold them , and 
meant to hold them out to the people, as the 
doctrines of the gospel of Jesus Christ ; and 
I thouglit I could prove them to him, by rea- 
son, by scripture, and by his own ^xperi^ 
ence, if he had the spirit, wdiich I supposed 
he professed to have. He replied: ** thou 
hast said a great deal, and I wish thee to be . 
gin thy argument." I first tried to reason 
thus: " that as we saw infants, fi-om their 
birth, were subjects of pain, anguish, and 
death, it was unreasonable to suppose a be- 
ing, iikfinitely good, would inllict this great 
penalty on beings perfectly innocent, pure. 


and blameless ; neither was there any way to 
hope for the salvation of them after cle?ith, 
but through God's electing grace in Christ." 
But I need not mention the arguments I 
iised. He stopped me by saying; there was 
reason in what ^vas said, but he wished for 
proofs from scripture. I produced a number 
of passages. He then observed, there were 
other ^passages, which he thought were 
against me. I told him ; I supposed that all 
the contradiction was in us, and therefore he 
might either reconcile them, or I would at- 
tempt to do it, which I did. He then men- 
tioned my undertaking to do it by his own 
experience; which I did, and he assented. 
He mentioned dress, preaching for money, 
outward ordinances, and concluded by ob- 
serving; that he had been prejudiced by ed- 
ucation, a];d that lie ne\'er had submitted 
himself before to a free inquir}'; which he 
meant should be the case, in future. ■ 

The next day, Mr. Thomas, had a meet- 
ing, on the way to the place, \^ here we were 
to meet Mr. Miller. After he had finished 


preaching, the people kept their seats as they 
did before. An old man among them thus 
addressed me : *' We are as sheep ^vithout 
a shepherd, perishing for lack of vision ; and 
if you have a regard for our souls, do endea- 
vour to say something tons." I spoke to 
them for some time. We then proceeded to 
meet Mr. Miller. He informed us m what 
state the people were. We examined them, 
and found that they were not a regular church. 
We examined those that offered, and those 
w^ho gave satisfaction, we received, and con- 
stituted a new church. Out of the whole 
that offered, there were only three received. 
Some openly declared, they knew they could 
npt^ive afi account of experiencing a work 
of grace, and therefore need not offer. Others, 
stood ready to offer, if a church was formed. 
The three before-mentioned were constituted, 
and six more were baptized, and joined with 
them. After the meeting ended, a number 
of old members went aside, and sent for me. 
They expressed their deplorable state, and^ 
asked me, if I would meet with them that 
evening, and try to instruct them. They 


were afraid the ministers blamed them. They 
had been misled ; but it was not their fault, 
and tliey hoped I would pity them. I told 
them I would with all my heart ; and endea- 
voured to remove their suspicion of the min- 
isters. They met, and I spoke to them from 
these words ; *^ They being ignorant ofGo(Ps 
righteousness^ arid going about to establish 
their own righteousness, have not submitted 
themsehes unto the righteousness of God,''"* I 
hope I was assisted to speak to them in an 
impressive manner ; and they to hear, at least 
some of them, so as to live. They after- 
wards professed, and became zealous mem- 
bers, and remained so, I believe, until their 

On my return to pursue my studies, I 
passed through Hopewell, \\here was Mr. 
Eaton. He informed me tkit a report pre- 
vailed tliat I was preaching in Virginia ; and 
lest it should injure my character, as going 
disorderly into the ministery, he advised me 
to stay till after the Lord's day, that he might 
call a church aneeting for the purpose of set- 


tling the matter. A meeting was called, and 
I was arraigned as being guilty of disorder. 
I wished them to exhibit the charge, and 
proofs. They had none, but informed me 
that travellers had passed through there and 
reported it, and they wished I v/ould give 
them a relation of the matter. I told them, 
it was the first time I knew the accused party 
called as the only evidence in the cause; 
hoVvTver, I would give them as just and im- 
partial a relation as I could ; which I did. 
They then asked me what I thought of my own 
conduct, whether I did not think I had 
been disorderly. I told them, I considered 
this question more extraordinary than the 
Other. I had not only given evidence, at 
their request; but was now called on to judge 
in a cause, where I was the accused party. 
Here, I ought, in justice to Mr. Eaton, to 
say, though he called the meeting, lie was 
as little acti\ e as possible. One of the elders 
asked me, if I proposed to persevere. I 
replied, it Mas not probable that the same 
occurrences would take place ; if they did, 
I. thought I should not do wron.^, or even. h<: 


disorderly in God's sight. . Instead of re- 
penting, my own conscience acquitted me. 
1 wished to return to my studies, and that it 
was now with the m, to decide on my conduct. 
Mr. Eaton proposed to the church, to caH 
me to prcdch before them, before I returned. 
And that my exei cise at home might be as 
public as, and consonant witli, that I obser- 
ved abroad, I was chosen. A time was ap- 
poined, and I preached. Wl-ile I wixs at 
school, I embraced all my leisure moments 
to write on some texts of scripture; and of 
what I then wrote, I now availed myself by 
using them. The church then ordered me 
to come and preach to them a month aRer ; 
which command I punctually obc} ed. They 
I hen proposed my attendance the next month, 
to which I objected, because it was some 
distance, consumed time, and interrupted my 
studies. I'liey proposed another examina- 
tion, to which they invited some neighbouring 
ministers, who met, examined, and made 
me a licenced preacher. I then intended to 
return and complete my education ; but was 
prevented by frecjuent interruptions* 


An elderly minister, eminent for his puri- 
ty and usefulness, enjoined it upon me, to 
attend and assist him at his next communion 
season. This rainister being much engaged 
in the school, frequently eitchanged with the 
neighbouring ministers ; and was the next 
Lord's day, to exchange with Mr. Richards j 
of Rah way. On Saturday afternoon , I met 
him on the road. He told me where he was 
going, and for what ; but said that meeting 
me had altered his mind. He said, he had 
understood I was regularly authorised tc 
preach ; and that I must preach to his peo- 
ple. He told me he would keep Mr. Rich- 
ards at home, and that I must promise that I 
would go to meeting ; and if his congrega- 
tion did not insist on my preaching, he would 
excuse me ; and not otherwise. My obliga- 
tions to him were too great for me to re- 
fuse ; but I was exceeding averse to it. My 
ftistructor was a preacher in this place ; and 
the ablest ministers of the Presbyterian order; 
usually preached to large congregations. 1 
did not wish to undertake ; but attempt it I 

must, and did* Some time after, attending 



Mr. Carman's communion, where there was 
a large congregation, a great many applica- 
tions to preach were soon pressed upon me. 
A young Baptist at Morristown gave me a 
call. This with many others so interrupted 
my studies, that I was compelled to give up 
a regular course of study, and turn my at- 
tention entirely to divinity. 

I soon after made Morristown a temporary 
home. The church, or rather the members 
of it, were but few, and much scattered 
through several Presbyterian congrtgations^ 
viz. in Baskinridge, Mendham, Morristown^ 
and Pasaic. I was kept constantly employed 
in my attendance, on Lord's days, at those 
places, alternately ; and once a week in 
preaching, where I put up, with Mr. Jones. 
We also held meetings at private houses, in 
the respective towns beforcmentioned. I 
also often visited Black-river, where there was 
a young and destitute church, which employ- 
ed so Uiuch of my time, that my studies were 
much interrupted. On Lord's days, large 
assemblies of young people attended from the 


different neighbourhoods aforesaid. They 
were open and familiar in their conversation t 
yet there were no very promising appearances 
of reformation. 

In this state, I continued, till the next asso- 
ciation ; when an application was made from 
Opocken, for assistance : some difficulty sub- 
sisting between the church and their minister, 
which they could not settle. The church 
at Blue- ridge applied for a person to adminis- 
ter the ordinances. As no ordained minister 
could be found, that could go, I was urged to 
accept the ordination, and undertake the 
journey. I pleaded my youth and inexperi- 
ence ; but the messengers from those church- 
es expressed their wishes that I should be 
sent. I objected in vain, and was prevailed 
on to accept ordination, and to undertake the 
journey. I tarried there much longer than I 
meant to have done, when I set out ; having 
an intention of being married on my return 
home. When I arrived at Opocken ,; the 
Lord opened the way, and the difficulty ap- 
peared amicably adjusted to mutual satisfac» 


tion, and the wound healed. I then went to 
Kotockton, and preached; and appointed a 
meeting, the next Lord's day, at Mr. John 
Gozzin's : the Lord's day following, I was 
appointed to administer the Lord's supper 
to them. 

On the Saturday preceding, Mr. Thomas 
baptized the wife of one John Hail, who was 
a vain man, and brought up a Quaker. — 
Hail was so much disgusted, that he deter- 
mined to sell all he possessed, and quit her 
entirery. While settling his affairs, the 
thought struck him, what should be done 
with his children. He observed that his 
wife's economy in the house, was as good as 
before ; her tenderness and attention to the 
family remained the same. He told her, if 
she would promise not to go there to meeting 
any more, he would try to live with her. 
She informed him that any thing she could 
do in conscience, she would ; but could not 
make that promise. Mrs. Hail had taken 
into her family a young woman, who was on 
the point of being married. Ha^ was indu- 


ced to come to meeting, to get me to publish 
and marry them. I to:d him, I could pub- 
lish them and give a certificate, if he would 
come on the Saturday I was to be there ; and 
then I could determine, whether I could go 
to his house, to marry them. This brought 
him again ; and to induce me to go, he plead 
the destitute state of his neighbourhood with 
regard to preaching ; and wished me to preach 
on Monday. I about this time understood 
something of what I h^\e before related, but 
he informed me more fully afterwards. I 
told him, if he would go home and warn the 
people, and come the next day and conduct 
me to his house, I would go and marry the 
couple, and would endeavour to preach. He 
came, and I accordir.gly went. I took this 
opportunity of conversing plainly with him 
upon the necessity of the nev/-birth. He be- 
came strongly convicted, which, I trust, 
ended in his soul's conversion. ^"^ 

I then proceeded to comply with a pressing 
request from one Mr. Numan, \^^hich he left 

* I returned the next Spring-, and baptised hiia- 


Avith some acquaintance of his at Opocken. 
This determined me to visit the Jersey set- 
tlement in North- Carolina ; and by taking 
the road above the mountain, I should go 
near Mr, Numan's. On my way ; I preached 
and meant to have arrived there on Saturday. 
I arrived at the first fork of Shenandoah. I 
desired to stay at a house on the bank, as 
I was a stranger, and did not know where to 
ford. The master of the house told me, I 
could not stay, as there hai been a great 
freshet, which almost ruined him. I, how- 
ever, informed him of my ignorance of the 
place, and the situation I was in ; and he 
finally consented to my stay, provided me 
with a pilot, and put me in the route to Nu- 
man's. This man sent and gathered the 
people together, and I preached to them. I 
continued preaching, w^ith intermissions, for 
several days ; and the congregations continu- 
ed to increase. The people appeared to 
have a conviction, which, at least, produced 
a change in their live?. 


I proceeded on my way to Carolina. I 
found a family from Jersey. The father of 
the family was dead, and the widow and her 
sons urged me to preach ; as there had been 
no preaching, near them, since they had lived 
there; which was a number of years. I con- 
sented. The house, where I preached, was 
some miles from the widow's, on my road to 
Carolina, as being more central, to tlie thin 
and scattering inhabitants. Among my hear- 
ers, there was a young married couple, nei- 
ther of whom had ever heard a sermon be- 
fore. I concluded to tarry here a little while, 
and converse freely with those present, about 
their soul's eternal welfare. 

While conversing, I heard ojie man say to 
another: *' this man talks like the Jones'.'* 
This led me to enquire, who these Jones' 
were ; and where they lived. They appeared 
surprised at this. I told them, to speak freely ; 
I should take no manner of exceptions at 
their answer. They then replied, that they 
w^ere distracted ; did nothing but pray, and 
talk about Jesus Christ ; and that they lived 


between twenty and thirty miles distant, oh 
my route. I determined to make it my next 
day's ride and see my own likeness. I arri- 
ved at the house a little before night, and found 
tlie old man lying before the fire, groaning 
with rheumatic pain. I asked him what was 
the, matter. He told me, he could neither 
walk, or set up. I told him,^if he was a chris- 
tian, he must be sensible it would work for 
his everlasting good ; as all tilings did. He 
said, he believed it. I asked him, if I could 
be acco.iiodated with a lodging. He an- 
swered me in the affirmative. I soon began 
the conversation upon religion, conviction, 
and conversion, and the alteration they made 
in our tempers and dispositions. He asked 
me, if I ever knew any that were so. I men- 
tioned several revivals of religion, and expe- 
riences that I had heard related. He in- 
formed me, he did not know of ary, and be- 
gan to relate his own story. ** Some months 
past," said he, *' I observed that my son, 
(who was about twenty. two years of age,) 
appeared very melancholy and reserved. 
One day, myself and wife had been quar- 


reliog, I observed my son to sigh loud, and 
go out of doors. I immediately supposed, 
that our disagreement made m.y son so de- 
jected. I inquired of him the reason. He 
said, it struck him to the heart. I was much 
distressed in the reflection, that we could 
not live in a manner, that \^'oald make our 
children happy. One day, I heard some one 
crying out of doors, and ran, fearful that 
somebody was hurt ; but Avhen I got to 
where the noise came from, I discovered my 
son, on his knees, cr) ing to God for mercy, 
ackno\^ ledging himself a sinner, and beg- 
ging of God for forgiveness, if it w^ere pos- 
sible. He thanked God, that Christ was 
sent to save sinners, and for their salvation 
through him. I was astonished, aiid re- 
mained silent, till my son pCiCeiving me, 
came and clasped me round the neck, and 
said ; he thought, just before, he w^as goijig 
to hell, under the w rath of God ; but that he 
then saw the Saviour, and that he might be 
saved. This conversation wrought upon my 
feelings so much, that I attempted to pray ; 
but I soon discovered that my prayers v; ere 


siiiful. I, however, soon had my eyes open to 
see my own ^vickedness, and die depravity of 
my heart. Things went on so, for some 
time, till, I hope, the Lord made all my 
family sensible of their perilous situation; 
and I trust now, they have all found Christ, 
to be their only hope of salvation." 

It being now, late in the evening, the two 
eldest sons (who had been a husking) return- 
ed. I was silent, that I might hear them 
converse ; and soon found why they were 
deemed distracted, by the gay and thought- 
Jess. They began to tell how thoughtless 
the people were; — that they began singing 
of songs, upon which, they themselves went 
to singing of hymns. Their father stopped 
them, and remarked, that they had taken no 
notice of me. He then informed them, that 
I knew all abaut those things, and had seen 
a great many, who kid been brought to the 
knowledge of the truth. This gave me an 
opportunity of conversing with the young 
men ; which gave me much pleasure. I 
inquired, how they knew when they were 


right; to which they answered; they took 
theh' Bible for their guide. I commended this, 
as being the sure way. It being then late, 
the old gentleman asked me to pray ; w^hich 
I did, and I hope to their edification. 1 
started, early in the morning, on my journey, 
although I w^as much importuned to tarry, 
till they could collect the scattering inhabi- 
tants, that I might preach to them. There 
was a young man with me, who w^as anxious 
to go ; which prevented my complying with 
their urgent request. 

We arrived at a house just at dusk, the 
master of which, gave us liberty to tarry. 
After we had conveyed our thin 2:8 into the 

-I o 

house, he asked me if I w^as a trader ; which 
I answered in the affirmative. He asked me 
if I found it to answer ; to which I answered, 
not so well as I could w^ish. He replied : 
'' probably the goods did not suit.'^ I told 
him, no one had complained of that. He 
said, I held them too high. I ansv.ered, any 
one might have them below their own price. 
He said he would trade on tliesc terms • which 


I said, I would cheerfully comply with. 1 
then asked him, if gold tried in the fire, yea, 
that which was better than the finest gold, 
wine and milk, durable riches and righte- 
ousnes, '^ without money and without price,** 
Vvouid not suit him. O! said he, I belie\-e 
you are a minister. I told hip., 1 was, and 
}iad a right to proclaim free grace wherever 
I went. This laid a foundation for the even- 
ing's conversation ; and I must acknowledge 
his kindness, though he was not very desirous 
of trading, after he disco^'cred, who I was. 

We proceeded tov.ards Cpj'olina, till we 
came to a place, where I found a family of 
kind Presbyterians, of whom I had some 
knowledge ; and where there were a number 
of that denomination, but were destitute cf a 
preacher. I stopped here, and j, reached; 
and then set forArard for Tising Creek, about 
foity miles distant. Here was a branch of a 
Baptist church, of the free-will principles. 
Tvly companion, v^ho lived here, had cften 
mentioned them \a cur journey, and wished 
me to stop; He set forward before me, that 


he might appoint a meeting against f arrived. 
When I arrived, I went to Mr. Shearman's, 
where there was a meeting. A great num- 
ber of people attended, and seemed to be 
much engaged ; and, I trust, the convictions 
of some, ended in hopeful conversion. 

I arrived at Tar-river, and began to preach ; 
and, to all appearances, there were many 
awakened to a sense of their situation ; and 
there appeared a general concern for their 
souls' eternal welfare. I preached every day, 
for a week ; and frequently conversed till late 
at night, with souls under concern. From 
here, I went on to the Yadkin, where I spent 
same time, and preached often, vvith some 
appeai'ance of success. 

From here, I went to Charleston, (South- 
Carolina.) I, however, stopped at Rocky- 
river, where there was a large settlement; 
chiefly Presbyterians. I saw such hopeful 
appearances of a blessing attending the word, 
that I was induced to tarry a number of days, 
and preach. I had high waters to pass in 


my journey, and the people made me pro- 
mise, if I found any difficulty, that I would 
jeturn and preach ; which was the case. 
The Lord, ho\\ CA'er, opened the way for me 
to proceed, in a few days, and I reached 
Ashby-river, on Saturday afternoon. Mr. 
Stephens, lived here, and when I arrived, he 
and his wife, with some Charleston ladies, 
had walked to the meeting-house. When 
they returned, they found me there. My 
coat, wliich had grown thread-bare almost, by 
my long journey, made me look rather out- 
landish ; and I saw it created a great deal of 
suspicion in Mr. Stephens, who closely ex- 
amined me, but finally treated me very bro- 
therly, and made me very welcome. The 
next day he insisted on my preaching for 
him. His congregation, of white people, 
was small ; but the blacks ^\ ere very nume- 
rous. To this latter class, he had paid much 
attention, and was very useful to them. After 
service was over, he told me, I made a very 
good negro preacher. When I came out of 
the house, the negroes stood in two rows, 
and as I passed, they pronounced many bles- 


sings on me, for taking so much care of tlieir 
souls. This humbled me before God, and I 
then thought, I would, for the future, take 
more pains with souls, and especially with 
negroes ; and I now wish I had more strictly- 
adhered to my determination. 

The next day, accompanied by Mr. Ste- 
phens, and the ladies from town, one of whom 
was the wife of Doctor Brisband, I went to 
Charleston. Mrs. Brisband took me to her 
house, and she and the Doctor insisted, that 
while I then staid in town, and at ail future 
times, I should stay with them. 

Mr. Hart, spread word among the people, 
that I was to preach. I went, with my tattered 
garb on ; and when I rose to speak, the sight 
of so numerous and brilliant an audience, 
(among whom were twelve ministers, and one 
of whom was Mr, Whitefield,) for a moment, 
brought the fear of man on me ; but, blessed 
be the Lord, I was soon reheved from this em- 
barrassment : the thought passed my mind, I 
had none to fear, and obey, but the Lord. 


I visited the Orphans'-house, the regula* 
tions of which, together with the rehgious 
afFabihty of the family, and their attention to 
the orphans, gave me the greatest satisfaction. 
I preached in the hall ; the orphans were 
seated in rows before me, the smallest, on the 
foremost seats. The usher directed me to 
put out the line, and they would sing. I 
did so, and they all rose up ; one of the little 
ones began the tune, and the rest of them 
joining, seemed a literal accomplishment of 
Christ's words : ** Out of the mouths oj* babes, 
he shall pei'fect praise. " In my return back, 
I had to pass a Uttle island, where, I under- 
stood, there had never been but two sermons 
preached. I stopped here, and the people soon 
collecting together, I preached to them from 
these words : *' Behold the third time I am 
ready to come to you^ and will not be burthen- 
some to you.''^ 

I preached at Charleston, and Ashby-river, 
several times. At the latter place, I preached, 
one evening, at the house of a Mr. Bulling ; 
•where tliere was a large congregation of 


negroes. I'heir attention, encouraged me to 
ask them many questions, concerning their 
souls ; and their ansvv^ers, fully convinced me 
they had been touched by the spirit of the 
Lord. I then proceeded on my way home- 
wards, by the way of Black -river ; and 
preached at Mr. Scriven's. In my way to 
Mars-bluff, on the I'edee, I lodged at the 
ferry-man's house. He observed, that he 
believed I was a minister, and wished me 
to tell him, of the best and shortest way to 
heaven. I told him that Christ was the best 
way ; and that he must become experimen- 
tally acquainted with him, and believe in him, 
which was the hope of glory. — -That after he 
had obtained this, the shortest way, that I 
knew, would be to place himself in the front 
of some army, in an engagement. 

I preached, en Lord's d y, at Mars-bluxT; 
where the people attended from a considera- 
ble distance. From here, I set off again, on 
my journey. I was told there was a route to 
Tar- river, v liich v/ould shorten the distance, 
ncai' fifty miles ; and a person offered to ac,. 


company me ten miles, provided 1 would' 
stop at a place, on the banks of Cape-Fear, 
told him, I could not stop, for I had made 
an appointment at Fish-creek, and it was ne- 
cessary for me to proceed, in order to fulfil 
it. When I arrived at the last pip.ce, I meant 
to have started early in the morning, to avoid 
the importunities of the people. I was obli- 
ged, however, to tarry some time ; for, in the 
morning, I could not find my horse, and uas 
fully convinced, he was put out of the way 
©n purpose. After hunting for him several 
days , in vain, I was obliged to get another. 
I, however, tarried here some time and 
preached, and I trust to the eternal welfare 
of many souls. I have often thought, what 
a blessing, was in my disappointment, and 
liow anxious I then was, to avoid that op- 
portunity, of being instrumental in the cor- 
version of the people. I thought it a heaven 
upon earth ; and the remembrance of it, even 
at this day, produces a strong wish to see 
one more such time, before I die. The 


people presented me a horse, which they 
purchased of Mr. Fuller, their former min- 

Another circumstance of a singular nature, 
which took place here, I cannot pass over in 
silence. A man in the neighbourhood of 
this place, who had formerly been a preacher^ 
but latterly had openly professed Deism, came 
to hear the last sermon that I preached. I 
think I spoke from these words : *' Acquaint 
now J thyself -with him ^ and he at peace; and 
therehy good shall come unto you.'''' Ashe 
had been pointed out to me, I watched 
him closely, and could not but observe the 
contempt he discovered at the beginning 
of service ; but before it ended, the tears 
rolled down his cheeks, and when I had fin- 
ished, he came to me, and urged me to stay 
an d preach again. I replied, I had staid so 
long, that all those, who had any regard for 
God, and his word, had improved the oppor- 
tunities of coming to hear me, and those that 
cared not for their own souls had rejected these 
opportunities. After standing a moment, he 


asked me, where I expected to make the ne^ct 
stop. I told him, about seventy miles off, at 
Fish creek, in North Carolina. He offered to 
bear me company. I told him, I had company. 
At this reply, I observed his countenance to 
change ; and I felt hurt, at the answer I had 
given him : I turned to Km, and told him, that 
if lie wished to converse with me about his 
soul, I should be glad of his company. He said, 
that was his wish. The next day we started, 
and on the road, he convinced me of that, 
which, before, I did not, and probably, now, 
should rot believe, — that there might be an 
Atheist m princip-e. That there were many 
in practice, was veiy evident. He told me, 
that doubts arose in his mind respecting the 
divinity of Christ, the Bible, heaven, and a 
hell, till those doubts became very strong ; 
when he connected himself with a set of 
Deists. He afterwards joined the Atheists, 
who furnished him ^\ idi books and argume^Us 
which established him in his infidelity, in 
which he had remained till yesterday; but 
under that r^ennon, he had su h impressions, 
that nothing, but the operation of the divine 


spirit G ould have made. He said, he did not 
then dovibt the existence of a God, but be- 
lieved hi s word. He said, his wish was to 
hearthosi^ arguments ans\^-ered, whjch the 
Atheists vx Ivanced, that he might be enabled to 
resist futur e attacks. I must confess, some 
of his argut. nents, gave me a Httle trouble to 
answer, eitht '^ to his or my own satisfaction. 

Thatevening, wereaclied Tar-river, where 
I was happ}^ to fi"^> that the impressions 
^vhich ^vhere on th e n^ii^^s of many, when I 
was there before, sti'^1 continued. 

Heport had gone fa ^'^^^ that some of the 
principal men in the com ^ty, had agreed, that 
if I came within theh' reac ^^^ they would ap- 
prehend me as a spy ; for, b} ^3' i^^^^? I ^^ ^ 
a Frenchman. This was dm ""^S ^^^^ French 
^var. Some of these people, hvv -^ ^^'^ the road 
that we mu^.t travel. My frienc ^^ persuaded 
me not to go; but I told them, v ^^d had so 
far conducted me on my journe}^ ai, ^'-^ ^ should 
endeavour to accomplish it. I told them, if 
any of them were afraid of the conseqv '-^"ces. 


as it respected themselves, I would f jxcuse 
them from bearmg me company. y,Vc had 
to go forty miles, the county town w as about 
half way. When we got near t' he place, 
some advised me to go through, fas secretly 
us possible ; I told them, I meant to refresh 
myself in the place. We stoppef^ l at the most 
jniblic house, and got refreshm^ :nt. I asked 
the landlord, if he thought th' a people would 
come out to hear a sermon on a week day. 
He told me, he thought the y would ; but ob- 
served, that the next Mouf' lay, there was to be 
a general nuister for thr ^t county. I knew, 
the colonel of the Regi' ^^^ent was one of those, 
that threatened me. i told the landlord, I 
should esteem it as a favour, if he would be 
at the trouble to ' ^pcak to the colonel, and 
inform him of vr y name, and that I was the 
man that was f x Tar-river the last fall, and 
tell him, that ' [ would be there on Monday at 
ten o'clock, and, if he thought proper, would 
preach a sir ^o^^t sermon, before military duty 
commenc ed; as I understood that was not 
till twe^V ^e. The landlord promised to do 
It. I preached the next day to the people at 


the meeting-house ; and, both day and night, 
during the time I staid, at private houses. 
On Monda}', I had twent}' miles to ride to 
the muster ; and by ten o'clock, there v\-as a 
numerous croud of men and women :— they 
had erected a stage in the v^oods for me, and 
I preached from Paul's christian armour. 
They all paid the most profound attention, 
except one man, who behaved amiss. I 
spoke and told him, I was ashamed to see 
a soldier so awk\vard in duty, and wondered 
his officer could bear with him. The Colo- 
nel, (as I afterwards understood,) brought 
him to order. After service, I desired a 
person to inform the commander that I want- 
ed to speiik with him. He immediately 
came, and I told him, that although I pro- 
fessed loyalty to King George, and did not 
wish to infringe upon the laudable design of 
the day, — yet, I thought the King of kings, 
ought to be ser^/ed first ; and I presumed, 
what I had said, did not tend to make them 
worse soldiers ; but better christians, He 
complaisantly, thanked me, and said, if I 
could wait, he would make the exercise o.^ 


short as possible, and give an opportunity for 
another sermon, for which he should be 
mucli obliged to me. I told him, I had 
an appointment, some miles off to preach the 
next day. Thus ended my chastisement, 
and the fears of my friends. 

We went that night, to Tai'-river, and, 
the next day, t^venty miles farther, where 
I made an appointment to preach. From 
hence, I returned by the vv^ay of Kotockton, 
f)r Blue-ride, where the inhabitants are scat- 
tered. On my road, I observed a thunder- 
-^torm arising, and rode speedily for the first 
house. When I arrived, the man came run- 
ning into tlie house, and seeing me, appear- 
ed much alarmed : there being at that time, 
great demands for men and Iiorses for Brad- 
dock's army. lie said to me : '' Srr, are 
you a pres!i-maste}\'^'' I told him, I was. 
'' But," said he, '' you do not take married 
men." I told liim, surely I did ; and that the 
master, I wished him to serve, was good, his 
character unimpeachable, the \\'ages great, 
and that it would be for the benefit of his 


wife and children, if he enlisted. He made 
many excuses, but I endeavoured to answer 
them, and begged him to turn out a volun- 
teer in the service of Christ. This calmed 
his fears ; and I left him, and proceeded on 
my journey to Kotockton, where I spent 
some time, and baptised Mr. Hail. 

* I now set oif for New- Jersey, and preached 
on my way, and soon arrived at Morristowm 
I had a number of youth among my congre- 
gation, in this place ; and I used, frequently, 
to address them, both in public and private, 
on the vanity of their frolics ; but could not 
make any impression on them. In the ap- 
plication of one of my sermons, in addres* 
sing the youth, I told them, they had treated 
me with politeness in many respects, but' 
they had never given me an invitation to any 
of their meetings; and, as I was a single pei'- 
son, I thought my self entitled to the compli- 
ment. This was soon spread abroad, some 
blamed, and some commended what I had 
said. An old Presbyterian deacon, ^who 
lived near me, and had a number of young 
G 2 


persons in his family,) came to me, and en- 
couraged me to visit their meetings, saying, 
he would bear me company. Some time 
after, hearing they had a froUc some ways off, 
I called on tb,e deacon, and we set off to visit 
the young people ; but they hearing of our 
coming, had dispersed before we arri\ed. 
Soon after this, they had another meeting, 
and sent me a polite invitation to attend. 
The first step, after receiving their invitation, 
was to go to the house where they were to 
meet, and to desire leave of the master and 
mistress of it, to act with freedom there 
that evening,^ (provided I acted in character,) 
without their interference. This request, the 
old people readily complied with. I then 
went to Esquire Cobel, and desired him to 
accompany me, which he did. A young 
man desired us to walk into the house,, which 
we did ; and after waiting some time, ex- 
pecting the company, I inquired and found 
they had given us the slip, and had gone 
about three miles off, where they had fre- 
quently met before. Here they began their 
frolic, but the landlord told them, tliat they 


had appointed diat evening to meet at Mr. 
Wade's, and had given Mr. Gano an invita- 
tion, to meet with them. lie said, they had 
behaved in an impoUte manner, and that he 
should therefore absohitely refuse their enjoy- 
ing themselves there that night. — This so 
exasperated them, that, being determined to 
have their frohc out, they proceeded about 
three miles farther, where they met with the 
same reception. This exasperated them still 
more, and they returned to Mr. Wades, de- 
termined to finish their frolic. But in this 
they were also disappointed, for Mr. Wade 
told them, that in consequence of their treat- 
ment to Mr., the Squire had forbid his 
suffering the like there again, under the pen- 
alty of the law. This ended the frolic, and, 
during the time I lived there, I never heard 
of another. 

I went to Connecticut- farms, to John 
Stites's, Esq. who was the Mayor of the 
Burrough of Elizabeth- Tow n ; and having 
formed a matrimonial engagement with his 
daughter Sarah, previous to my journey, we 


were married ; aiid, by die assistance of my 
father-in-law, I purchased a small farm, near 
Morristown, and in the neighbourhood of 
the then infont Baptist church, where I had 
formerly preached. We soon took posses- 
sion of oiu' farm. My labour, as a preacher, 
increased ; for besides my stated services in 
the church, there was a destitute church* 
at Black-river, in the State of New-Jersey, 
which depended on me to administer the 
ordinances ; and although the church was 
sm 11, the members were scattered in differ- 
ent townships;-— some in Baskinridgc, Mor- 
ristov/n, Mendham, &c. &c. who applied for 
lectures in each place ; and the ar^pearances of 
success were such, as induced me to repeat 
my visits as often as possible, and almost be- 
yond what my heiJth would admit of. At 
one of these places, there was a happy in- 
stance of a promising youth, (')]; name He- 
zekiah Smith,) who professed to be converted, 
and joined the church, who appeared to have 
an inclination for education, to which his 
parents objected. His eldest brother, joined" 
me in solidui% ^is father, who finaiiy con- 


sented to his receiving an education. He 
vv ent through a collegiate education at Prince- 
Town College, and came out a zealous prea- 
cher, and to 'appearances, a useful one. The 
church at Morristown gradually grew, and 
the congregation gradually increased. 

%, Repeated solicitations came from South- 
Carolina, for a minister to travel among them, 
and, as I had been tliere before, and had some 
acquaintance, I was induced to engage in a se- 
cond journey. I therefore set out, and, when 
I arrived at the Yadkin, in North- Carolina, I 
was strongly solicited to move among them. 
They sent two messengers to my church, to 
give me up. I requested them to let the 
matter rest, till my return from South- Caro- 
lina, to which they consented. Upon my 
arrival in South- Carolina, I was happy in the 
appearances of religion in miany places. After 
staying about eight months, I set off for home, 
and was much rejoiced, upon rhy return, 
that God had blessed us with a son, during 
my absence, v, hom we called John. The next 
Lord's-ciay after my arrival, I called a church- 


meeting, to give the church at Yadkin, an 
opportunity to present their mess ige ; which 
they did, and used all their influence with the 
church to no apparent success. I then dis- 
missed the messengers, and told them, 1 would 
not leave the church without their consent ,- but 
if, at any time, they should consent, I would 
WTite to them. The members of the churchy 
having conversed upon the matter, at our 
next church-meeting, addressed me in the 
folio\ving manner : ^' We gave the messen- 
gers no manner of encouragement, supposing 
that would prevent your coolly deliberating, 
upon their necessity and ours. But v/e deem 
you the best judge, and are willing to leave 
the matter ^vith God, ,and your own consci- 
ence. If you think it your duty to leave us, 
we cannot insist upon your stay." My 
reply was, that as they had left the matter 
to me, it appeared to be my duty to go to 
that people, who were entirely destitute, and 
that it was not for want of attachment to them. 
They accordingly agreed to dismiss me. I 
made preparations for removal, disposed of 


my property, and wrote to the church in 
North- Carolina. 

I at length took leave of the church and 
my friends, and started on a long, expensive, 
and tedious journey ; and, through the good- 
ness of God, arrived there in about five 
■^weeks, after travelling about eight hundred 
miles. We met ^vith a favourable reception 
from the people, and Colonel G. Smith., 
received us in his house, where wc continu- 
ed, until I built a house. 

The people met, and determined on build- 
ing a meeting-house, which was completed 
in a few months. As there was no other 
place of worship near, and there was a great 
collection of inhabitants of different denomi- 
nations, they all attended, and it became ge- 
nerally united. In order diat all might be 
Goncerned, upon necessary occasions, we 
api ointed a boai'd of trustees, some of each 
denomination. They continued to be uni- 
ted, while I remained there, v/hich was about 
two years and a half. Before I left the place^ 

64 M h MniH 


a Baptist church wiis constituted, and many 
additions made to it. J)uring my residence 
in tliis j)lace, uc were blest with auotht r sou, 
who wax horii November 1 1 tli, J 758, and 
wliom We called Dauid. A circumstance 
occurred al Pedec, an liundied and len miles 
off, which I will mention, as it in some mea- 
sure respects myst If. 'i'he minister of the. 
church was displaced i'or die crime of intoxi- 
cation. After a liltle time, he j^ave up drink- 
ing, and justified the ciiurc h in llieir proce- 
dure, and was restored to his standing in the 
church. lie requested me to supply theju 
four times a year, which I did, and felt happy 
that my labours were, or aj)pi)eared to be, 
blest among tlic m. Al one of dicsc quar- 
terly visits, a gentleman who lived sixteen 
miks o(f, and who ])rof ssed to be a Deist, 
attended, and I happened to take a text appli- 
cable, vi>^. ^'' Acc/uaiut ii()W thi/srlfwitli hini^ 
and he (if pattn-^ thcrchij i^ood shall conic unto 
tficc.'' lie appeared extremely affected, and 
after sermon solicited me to go home with 
him, and preach, which I did. I apj)ointed 
the next day to preach iigain, and had a large 

V 1. V i-; HK N I) I u H rJ r, A N o. h!) 

audience. I f^avv this man, hainv tirnc after, 
;in(l hv U>\(\ mc <,i' hi', jirospCCtb of li:ij)i)inC8ft 
iiikI of iiilmily. 1 also Rxcivcd an iiivit.-u 
lion lr> prcacli to u cliiirrli of old staiid»n|.';, 
wliich was <tslal)lish<d iii>oii the frcc-will 
principle. Tljcy professed that \Ury were 
imicli enlightened under rny miuisUy, and 
to have their prineipKs j^reatly renewed. 
There appeared to be a f':f:nerai stir of reli- 
f^ion among* them ; and although it i:; now 
forty years since, I saw a man and Iiis wifi* 
about four }earH ago, vvlio professed to hav« 
been awakened at that. lime. 

The reason of my l^'.aving this ]>la^( , ua ., 
ilie w;4r with die Cherokee Indians. I had a 
Captain's commission from tlx (iov(jjir>r; 
but there beiiig iid jmrrjcdiair; call for my 
services, and my family being- rrjurJi exposcil, 
I concluded it was e:<pedient t.r) move back 
lo New-Jersey, I the/efore resi/^icd my com- 
mission, and left this j)lacx, and under th( j>ro- 
tection of a kind providence, arrived safely 

at njy fathfj-iu Javv^'s, at Klizabcth-TowfJ, 


with my wife and two children, after being 
absent two years* 

During itiy residence in North-Carolina, 
Mr. Jenkins Jones, pastor of the Baptist 
church in Philadelphia, died ; and the church 
being destitute of a pastor, had sent a call to 
England, for one. It was represented, that 
they had been so particular in the requisite 
qualifications for a minister, that it had given 
offence to the preachers ; so that they were 
entirely destitute. They made application 
to me, to \dsit them ; and also to Mr. Miller, 
of Scotch Plains, who had been a successful 
minister in New- York, and had baptised 
sundry persons there, I visited New- York 
and Philadelphia, alternately. I at length 
came to the conclusion, that I would supply 
both places, two Sabbath's at each place. 
The church at Philudeiphia, invited me, to 
bring my family, and tarry with them, till 
they received an answer from England. I 
answered them, that I would not come on 
such terms ; but if they would affix a certain 
time for my stay, I would accept of their m- 


vitation. To this proposal they acceded, 
and I went to Philadelphia. While there, 
Mrs. Gano had a daughter, born December 
23d, 1760, whom we called Peggy. During 
my sti\y thtre, which was through the winter, 
the ::hurch appeared in a flourishing state, and 
several additions were made to it. 

In the spring, the church at New- York, 
knowing my term of engagement vvds nearly 
up, sent a call to me, to remove there. I 
answered, that I w^ould go for one year, but 
that I would lake three months of that time 
to visit North- Carolina; to which they agreed. 
I accordingly removed. They had finished 
a meeting-house, and had began a parsonage- 
house ; and they seemed disposed to do any 
thin^, to render me happy. Their church, 
which at first consisted of only twenty- six 
members, vrere speedily increased ; and a 
hopeful work began. At everj^ church-meet- 
ing there \vas a number who offered them- 
selves. My usual services, on Lord'^s days, 
were, preaching three times ; and I gave a 
lecture weekly. The church being too small 


to accommodate the people who attended, 
an addition was made to it. The church, at 
this time, had increased to two hundred in 

About the time I left Philadelphia, Pro- 
vidence blessed that church^ by sending a. 
young and respectable preacher, Samuel Still- 
man, from South-Caiolina, among them. 
He possessed popular talents as a speaker. 
He continued with them, till the arrival of 
Morgan Edwards, the minister from Eng- 
land. Mr. Stillman went to Boston, where 
he now continues, pastor of the first Baptist 
cliurch in that place. I remained in the 
city of New- York, (w here we had another sen 
December 25th, i762, whom we named 
Stephen,) until the introduction of the British 
war. During my residence in this place, tlie 
church \\ere in love and harmony, except a 
few difncuhies that tock place, by the aiTi\'al 
of two or tliree preachers from England. 
Or,e of them was John jMurra}% \\l:o advan- 
ced the doctrine of universal salvation, and 
who, for a little time, drew a few from my 


church, as well as from others. Another 
was one Dawson, who ingratiated himself 
into the favour of some of my church; but, 
understanding his character did not stand 
fair in the place from whence he came, I 
discountenanced any marks of respect which 
my people wished to shew him. This dis- 
satisfied several, but the body of the church 
coincided with me. This occasioned us 
much difficulty, though it did not amount 
to a division in the church, which was, what 
Dawson was desirous of promoting ; and 
which he did eiFect in other churches where 
he was countenanced, viz. Stratfield, in Con- 
necticut, and one in Newport, (Rhode-Isl- 
and.) and some others. The third, was one 
John Alien, or Junius Junior, as he profes- 
sed to be. We had more difficulty in the 
church, on this man's account, than with 
both the others. His invectives were level- 
led against me, and I,, in return, obtained 
from England, an account of the man and 
his character at home, which satisfied my 
people that he did not possess much me- 
rit. Finding himself neglected and despised 
H 2 


he removed eastward. Soon after, a great 
difficulty arose in the church respecting the 
singing of psalms. Akhough die cause was 
trivial, the consequence was a separation of 
the church, or, in other ^^^ords, the second 
church was constituted out of it. From these 
two churches others were constituted; — One 
upon Staten-Island ; — one at Stamford, (Con- 
necticut,) — one in King- street; and another, 
at Peeks-Kill. 

From the constitution of the church, until 
its separation, it pleased God to renovate the 
hearts of many ; and many \^ ere called to 
exercise their gifts in the ministry. One of 
these was ?^Ir. Isaac Skillman, a graduate of 
Prince-Town College. At the time he join- 
ed the church, he taught a latin school in 
the city of New- York. He afterw ards, ac^ 
cepted a call from the second Baptist church 
in Boston, where he lived a few years. He 
was solicited to remove to Kentucky, and 
take charge of a seminary of learning at Lex- 
ington in tliat state ; but was diverted from 
it, by a call from a church in New Jersey, 


^vhich he accepted, and in which he now 
continues. About the same time, Mr. Eben- 
ezer Frances, of Stamford in Connecticut, 
one of the members we dismissed fl'om our 
church, to constitute the church in Stamford, 
was called by them to the ministry ; and still 
continues in it, w ith reputation, for ought I 
know to the contrary. Stephen Gano, now 
a minister at Pro^'idence, in the state of 
Rhode- Island, was called from our church 
to preach. Another was, Mr. Thomas 
Ustick, now a minister in Philadelphia. He 
was baptised, and joined our church when 
he w^as about fourteen years of age. He w^as 
a promising youth, and had a great desire for 
an education ; which induced us, to encou- 
rage him to go to Rhode-Island College, in 
Providence, where he completed his educa- 
Mon, under the care of President Manning. 
After his return, the church, finding he had 
a desire for the ministry, put him on trial, 
and licenced him to preach ; which he did in 
different places, ia New^- England, before he 
was called to the place, Vv here he now is. 


While in this place, we had another daugh^ 
ter, who was born February 4th, 1764, and 
whom we called Sarah. The year after, oiir 
eldest son, John Stites Gano, who was on a 
visit to his grand- parents, met with a fall, 
which put a period to his existence, after 
languishing a few days. He professed a 
hope of eternal life, through the mediation of 
Jesus Christ. On the 14th day of July, 
1766, we had another son, who bore tlie 
name of John Stites Gano, after my eldest. 
Gn the 15th of August, 1768, we had ano- 
ther daughter, w^ho died in the third year of 
her age. We had another son, Mhom we 
called Isaac Eaton Gano, . in the year 1770; 
and at the commencement of the war, just 
before we left New- York, we had another 
son, whom we called Richard Montgomery 

The war now coming on, obliged the 
church to sepai'ate, and many removed from . 
the city, in almost every direction, through 
the union. I was invited by Mr. Peter 
Brown, of Horseneck, in the edge of Con- 



]iecticut, to remove my family to his house, 
as he understood I was determined to remain 
in the city, till the enemy entered it : the 
British fleet were in the Narrows, and part 
of their troops were landing on Long and 
Staten- Islands. 

I was invited to become Chaplain of the 
regiment, belonging to Colonel Charles Webb, 
of Stamford, and Lieutenant Colonel HalL 
This I declined. They then proposed to me, ^.^ 
to come to their regiment, which lay a little * -X 
distance from the city, and preach to them 
one sermon on Lord's- day, and attend thera 
every morning. To this I acceded. 

The enemy's shipping, took possession 
both of the North and East-rivers, and clearly 
evinced their determination of landing their 
troops. This left me no possible opportu- 
nity, of getting my housthold furniture ; I 
was obliged therefore, to retire, precipitately, 
to our camp. The next dri}', after a little 
skirmiiLhlng, the British took possession of 
the city, and our army was driven to Hasrlem 


heights. — From thence, after a few more 
skkmishes, we had to retreat to Kings-bridge^ 
in West-Chester, leaving in Fort-Washing- 
ton, a garrison of about fifteen hundred men, 
all of whom, a little after, fell a sacrifice to 
the British. From King's-bridge, we retreat^ 
ed to White-plains, where General Wash- 
ington had the greater part of his ai'my, 
excepting those that were employed in Pcnn- 
sj^lvania. On the heights of Wliite- plains, 
/Tu^^we had a warm, though partial battle; for 
lyyb not a third of our army, or probably of theirs, 
was brought to action. My station, in time 
of action, I knew to be among the surgeons ; 
but in this battle, I, somehow, got in the 
front of the regiment ; yet I durst not quit my 
place, for fear of damping the spirits of the 
soldiers, or of bringing on me an imputation 
of cowardice. Rather than do cither, I chose 
to risk my fate. I'his circumstance, gave an 
opportunity to the young officers of talking ; 
and I believe it had a good effect upon some 
of them. From this place, we wididrew, in 
a few days, to North- Castle, and encamped 
not far from the Presb} terian meeting house); 


ivhich was made a hospital for the sick and 
wounded. I obtained a furlough, to visit my 
family, for a few days; and upon my return, 
found all the army gone from the place, ex- 
cept one poor soldier, whom I found at the 
hospital, with a bottle of water at his side. 

The British, had passed through New-Jer- 
sey , towards Philadelphia ; and had garrisoned 
a body of men at Brunswick, Prince-Town, 
and Trenton; where they had quartered the 
chief part of their Hessian troops. General 
Washington, had passed over the Delaware 
with a part of his army, and encamped in New- 
ton, in Pennsylvania ; and had ordered the re- 
mainder, which I belonged to, and which 
General Lee commanded, to come after him. 
We marched through Morristown, and Bas- 
kinridge, in New- Jersey, where General Lee 
was taken, in the night, in the outskirts of 
our army. The command then devolved on 
General Glover, who led us through Aimwell, 
©ver the Delaware, to General Washington's 


Our troops, principally consisted of men, 
enlisted for the year, and tlie militia. Gen- 
eral Washington ga\^c orders for his army to 
march, in the evening, across die Delaware, 
to Trenton, and attack the Hessians. In diis 
attack, eleven hundred Hessians were taken 
prisoners. The time, for which our troops 
engaged, being out. General Washington, 
visited the various regiments, and requested 
them to serve six wrecks longer. In that 
time, he said, he expected a reinforcement, 
with an army, raised either for three years, or 
during the war. Our affairs were principally 
conducted by State- Congresses. The British, 
hearingof our army being at Trenton, march- 
ed their troops after us ; and the two armies 
met at Prince-Town, w^iere a skirmish took 
place, and the British retreated to Brunswick. 
Here General Washington, with a handful 
of men, kept the British in close quarters, 
for die remainder of the year. 

Six weeks being now exy-'ired, and we 
about to return horne, the colonel and officers 
of the regiment requested to know, if I would 


join them provided they should raise another 
body of men. I answered them in the af- 
firmative ; but on my return home, I found 
a letter from Colonel Dubosque, who was 
stationed at Fort- Montgomery, on the bank 
of North-river, opposite Fish-Kill. On the 
receipt of this letter, I set off to the colonel's 
regiment, to refuse the invitation, therein 
contained. On m.y arrival there, I found 
General James Clinton, ih company with the 
Colonel, both of whom, i|rged mc to accept 
the office of Chaplain, in so forcible a man- 
ner, that I finally consented. I repaired to 
the fort, where I remained, till the British 
took it from us, by storm. 

The North-river, Vv'as a great object, both to 
the Americans, and the enemy. For w hile wx 
had the comm.and of it, the eastern and soutli- 
ern states, could operate to great advantage ; 
but if the enemy could controul it, it w^ould 
involve iis in great difficulties and embarrass- 
ments. They were therefore anxious to 
have their army come from Canada, to Alba- 
ny, and their navy, to take possession of 


North-river, and thereby form a junction with 
each other. Their navy, sailed up the river, 
and landed their soldiers, amounting to about 
five thousand men. We had, both in Fort- 
Montgomery, and Fort- Clinton, but about 
seven hundred men. We had been taught 
to believe, tliat we should be reinforced, in 
time of danger, from the neighbouring mili- 
tia ; but they were, at this time, very inac- 
tive. We heard of the approach of the 
enemy, and that they Avere about a mile and 
a half from Fort-Clinton. That fort sent 
out a small detachment, which was immedi- 
ately driven back. The British army sur- 
rounded both our foits, and commenced an 
universal firing. I was walking on the breast- 
work, viewing their approach, but \vas obliged 
to quit this station, as the miisquet balls fre- 
quently passed me. I observed the encm}^ 
marching up a litde hollo^v, that they might 
be secured from eur firing, till they came 
within eighty yard§ of us. Our breast- w ork , 
imm.ediately before them, ^^-as not more than 
waist band-high, and we had but a few men. 
The enemy, kept up a heavy firing, till our 


men, gave them a well directed fire, which 
alFected them very sensibly. Just at, this 
time, we had a reinforcement from a redoubt, 
next to us, which obliged the enemy to with- 
draw. I walked to an eminence, where I 
had a good prospect, and saw the enem_y 
advancing towards our gate. This gate, 
faced Fort- Clinton, and Captain i\Ioody, v/ho 
commanded a piece of artillery at that fort, 
seeing our desperate situation, ga^'e the ene- 
my a charge of grape-shot, ^vhich threw them 
into great confusion. Moody repeated his 
charge, which entirely dispersed them for 
that time. 

About sun-set, the enemy sent a couple of 
flags, into each of our forts, demanding an 
immediate surrender, or we should all be 
put to the s\vord. General George Clinton, 
who commanded in Fort- Montgomery, re- 
turned for answer, that the latter v/as pre- 
ferrable to the former, and that he should not 
surrender the fort. General James Clinton, " 
who comm.anded in Fort- Clinton, answered 
the demand in the same manner. A fev; 


minutes after the flags had returned, the ene- 
my commenced a very heavy firing, Vvhich 
was ansv;tred by our army. The d isk of 
the evening, together with the smoke, and 
the rushing in of the enemy, made it impos- 
sible for us to distinguish h iend, from foe. 
This confusion, gave us an opportunity of 
escaping, tbj'ough the enemy, over the breast- 
work. Many escaped to the water's side, 
and got on board a scow, and pushed off. 
Before she had got twice her length, v»e 
grappled one of our row-gallies, into which 
we all got, and crossed the river. We ar- 
rived safe at New- Windsor, where in a few 
days after, we were joined by some more of 
our army, who had escaped from the forts. 
By cur returns, we had lost, killed and 
taken prisoners, about three hundred men. 
The enemy, as we afterwards understood, 
had one thousand or eleven hundred killed, 
among whom were eighteen Captams, and 
one or two field officers, besides si great 
number of wounded. 

When we arrived at New- Windsor, I ob- 
tained a furlough, to visit my family, who then 


lived at New-Fairfield, where was born, my 
daughter Susannah, on the 8th of November, 
1777, and from whence, after tarrying a few 
days, I departed for the army. 

The command of the North-river, as I be- 
fore said, was a great object with the Ameri- 
cans, as well as the enemy. The British, 
therefore, made every exertion to unite their 
northern and southern armies. A spy was 
dispatched from Sir Henry Clinton, to ob- 
tain information of our situation. But prQ- 
videntially for us, the spy was apprehended, 
and the enemy's scheme frustrated. Their 
northern army, w^as captured at Bennington, 
on their way to Albany, principally, by the 
New- England militia, under the command 
of Gereral Gates. I obtained another fur 
lough to visit my family, but as our arniy 
w^as encamped near a meeting-house, I was 
ordered to visit them, and preach. My 
family removed to New-Milford, where I 
often preached, when on a visit to them, 


At the opening of the next campaign, 
General Clinton's brigade, consisted, of two 
regiments from New- York, one from New- 
England, and one from New-Jersey, neither 
of which had a Chaplain. I was, therefore, 
constituted Chaplain to the brigade, by Gene- 
ral Clinton, and, soon after, commissioned 
as such, by Congress. During this cam- 
paign, the principal operations of the enemy, 
were in Pennsylvania and New- England. In 
the latter, they burnt part of Old Stratfield, 
and attacked Danbury, where they w^ere so 
warmly repulsed, that with difficulty they 
^scaped.— At the close of the campaign, 
Generd Clinton's brigade w^as ordered to 
take winter-quarters in Albany. While we 
remained there, a message from our 
troops, which lay at Canajoharie, to General 
Clintop, requesting, to let me go and spend 
a little time with them. To this the General 
i^onsented, and I went. When I got there, 
they asked me to preach; and wished I would 
dwell a little more on politics than I common- 
ly did. In one of my discourses, I took 
the words of Moses to his father-in-law: 


** Come, go thou with us, and we will do thee 
good; for he that seeketh my life, seeketh thy 
life, but with us thou shalt be in safeguard,^* 

About this time, the western expedition 
was meditated, to be conducted bv General 
Sullivan. General Maxfield, of New- Jersey, 
was to go up the Susquehanna, and form 
a junction Vvith General Clinton. General 
Banis's brigade, from New-England, to go to 
Otsego, at the head of the Susquehanna, and 
wait for orders, to come down the river, 
with flat-bottomed boats, which were for the 
conveyance of the troops and provisions. 
Accordingly, one hundred and eight boats 
were provided, and went up the North 
and Mohawk-rivers, to Canajoharie. From 
thence, they were carried through woods and 
swamps, sixteen miles, to Otsego, which 
forms the Susquehanna. While some of the 
army were cutting and preparing the road 
for the conveyance of the boats, the General 
sent others, to dam the out-let, which was so 
effectually done, that the \vhole lake was rais- 
ed three or four feet. We encamped at 


Otsego^ for five or six weeks, previous to our 
receiving orders for marching. Wc lay 
here on the fourth of July, and the officers 
insisted on my preaching, which I did from 
these words : '* This day shall be a memorial 
unto you throughout your generations ^ On 
this occasion, the soldiery behaved with the 
most decency that I ever knew them to, du- 
ring the war. Some of them usually absent- 
ed themselves from worship on Lord's-day, 
and the only punishment they were subjected 
to, was the digging up of stumps, which, in 
some instances, had a good effect 

Our troops, both officers and privates, 
grew . extremely irnpatient of remaining so 
inactive, fearing the campaign would fall 
through. The General informed me, that he 
had received orders to move, and that he 
should do it on the next Mondav. He re- 
quested me not to mention it, till after ser- 
vice the next day, Vvhich was Sunday. I 
preached to them from these words : *' Being 
ready to depart on the morrou\ " As soon as 
service was closed, tlie General rose up, and 


ordered each Captain to appoint a certain num- 
ber of men out of his company, to draw the 
boats from the lake, and string them along 
the Susquehanna, below the dam, and load 
them, that they might be ready to depart the 
next morning. Notwithstanding, the dam 
had been opened several hours, yet the swell 
it had occasioned in the river, served to carry 
•the boats over the shoals and flatts, which 
would have been impossible otherwise. It 
was at that time very dry ; it was therefore, 
matter of astonishment to the inhabitants, 
down the river, for above eh hundred miles, 
what could have occasioned such a freshet 
in the river. The soldiers marched on both 
sides of the river, excepting the invalids, 
who went in the boats, Vvith the baggage 
and provision. In a few days, we formed a 
junction, at Cayuga, v/iih. the troops from 
below. The General calculated the route, 
and the time it would consequently take 
them ; examined the provision, and finally 
concluded to form a garrison, leave all the 
baggage and provision, (excepting that in 
cjiarge of Colonel Butler,) and proceed Vv^ith 


two or three pieces of light Cc^nnon, for the 
place of destination. The next day we had 
a little skirmish with the Indians, who, we 
believed, had secretly watched the motions 
ef both divisions of our armv. 

We marched for Newton, (Penn.) where 
the different nations of Indians, under their 
two chiefs, Butler and Brant, had collected, 
and ambuscaded. General Suilivan, by some 
of his spies, gained information of this, the 
evening before ; and therefore planned the 
attack for next morning. Sullivan, with his 
division and cannon, was to march up and 
attack, while General Poor with his regi- 
ment, should march to the right, aiid take 
possession of a mountain, where it was judg- 
ed the main body of the Indians lay. Gene- 
ral Clinton to advance further to the riglit, 
and station himself at the back of the moun- 
tain, to head the enemy, if they were routed. 
We pursued our orders, dll forced, by an 
impassable defile, to go nearly into General 
Poor's route. iNIany of the enemy, by this 
means, escaped. One circumstance, pre- 


vented our gaining a complete victory. Our 
orders Vv^ere not put in execution, when the 
attack was made by General Sullivan; he 
commenced wdth heavy £ring from his can- 
non, which created a general alarm among 
the Indians. This we learnt from two pri- 
soners, whom we took. They also told us, 
that the instant tlie first cannon was fired, 
they broke their ranks, and took to running, 
although Butler and Brant, ordered them to 
stop. When our army collected, we saw 
ourselves surrounded by a large field of In- 
dian corn, pumpkins, squashes, beans, &c. 
which was no unpleasant sight to soldiers, 
who Vv^ere as hungry as we w^ere. Here 
General Sullivan displayed his generalship, 
by putting the army on half allowance, that 
we might more effectually secure the victory, 
by pursuing the Indians. Our success, and 
the exhortations of our officers, induced the 
soldiery to a cheerful compliance, and they 
consequently set up a loud huzza ! An Irish- 
man, observing this, said, he had been a long 
time in the British army, and some time in 
the service of America, but he never heard 


soldiers ciy huzza! for half allowance before; 
however, as they all had, he would. To 
this place, we brought several of our boats ; 
and from here, they were sent back, to con- 
vey some wounded soldiers and corn, for 
the garrison. 

On our return, the Indians that were settled 
on Cayuga and Tioga, were apprised of our 
approach, and had left those two places, leav- 
ing behind thim an old squaw, and a young 
one to take care of her. The General, des- 
troyed the town ; but first ordered her into a 
wigwam, and forbid any one hurting her or 
her wigwam; and also left a not€ on her 
door to that effect. We understood, that in 
going to the Genesee, we had to go through 
a considerable town. The general sent off 
a lieutenant and serjearnt, with twenty men, 
to make discoveries, and to return that night. 
Instead of returning, they wished to try the 
convenicncy of an Indian wigwam, and there- 
fore tarried all night. The Indians, hearing 
of this, formed an ambuscade between them 
and the army, which our men did not di»- 


cover, till they were entrapped. One of our 
men, by name Murphy, cleared himself from 
them, shot an Indian who attempted to o'p- 
pose him, and brought us the information. 
The General put the army m motion ; but 
before we arrived to the relief of our men^ 
we were stopped by a rivulet, and ^vere 
obliged to throw a bridge across it. While 
this was doing, the General stationed centi- 
>nels beyond the men, who vvcre at work, and 
nearly within gun-shot of the Indians. In 
crossing the bridge, they shot one or two 
of our men : one of Our centinals, a daring 
fellow, saw a cluster of them rise from their 
concealment, and knowing it was impossible 
for him to escape from them, run toward 
them, hallooed and waved his hat, as though 
our army were nigh him. This alarmed 
them so, that they arose and run, leaving 
their baggage &c. behind them. We 
crossed the bridge, but had not marched 
far, before night overtook us. We were 
obliged to encamp. The distance, between 
us and the Genesee flats, was iTut small. 



Next morning, we set off on our mafch, 
crossed the Genesee, and marched seven 
miles to a large Indian town. Here we dis- 
covered, that the Indians had massacred our 
Lieutenant Boyd and the Serjeant, and had 
burnt down their huts. Among the ruins of 
the huts, w^e found a number of human bones, 
which vvesui^posedwere those of Boyd's scout 
taken in the skirmish, and of their own men 
who were killed or wounded. Here we en- 
camped for the night. 

In the morning, we heard the guns from 
the British garrison. We discovered ama- 
zing fields of corn, not yet fathered, which 
our army destroyed. It v^as supposed that 
the Indians were gone to the British garrison ; 
and that they had concluded our intention 
was for the garrison. In the afternoon, our 
army wheeled about ; and General Clinton, 
was ordered to encamp at the Genesee, and 
wait for our division to come up. Sulli- 
van's division, encamped in a large corn- 
field. Our division, marched with all the 
dispatch they could, being amazing w^eak 


and emaciated^ by their half allowance, and 
green corn. We returned near to the gar- 
rison at Cayuga ; the garrison came out to 
meet us. The next day, we had a great 
feast in the garrison, and then arranged mat- 
ters for our return to Easton. But here, I 
must not forget to mention a circumstance, 
peculiaily pleasing to me. Tv. o or three 
young soldiers were under great distress of 
mind concerning their souls, and, frequently, 
came to see and converse with me. I men- 
tioned a text to General Sullivan, which fre- 
quently occurred to me Vvhen I thought of 
the Indians, and the devastations which were 
made in their country. The text was : 
** They shall walk through them^ he an hung- 
ry^ and curse their God and their King^ and 
look upwards,''^ The General intended to 
have a sermon when v.e arri\'ed at Easton, 
and wished me to preach from these ^vords 
just mentioned. But, vvheu we arrived at 
Easton, I found there was another Chaplain 
who had made preparations to preach a ser- 
mon, T therefore gave him tlie opportunity. 


I obtained a furlmigh, to visit and tarry 
some time \\ ith my family. While here, I 
received a letter from the Baptist church in 
Philadelphia, requesting me to come and 
supply them. I shewed the letter to General 
Clinton, who granted me leave to pay thenri 
a visit for two or three weeks. I informed 
the church, that I was not discharged from 
the army, neither did I wish to engage my- 
self to any people. For if, in the providence 
of God, the enemy should be driven from 
New- York, I intended to collect my scatter- 
ed church, and to settle myself in that place. 
I therefore \^ished them to look for a supply 
elsewhere. While in Philadelphia, I had a 
severe turn of the cholic, which detained 
me from the army several days longer than 
I intended to have staid. That winter \ve 
encamped near Newbury, and my fl\miiy 
lived at Warw ick : as the distance was not 
great, I had the privilcj^e of being more at 
home that winter, than at any time since 
the commencement of the v^'a^ ; and it was 
•a providential circumstance, as the winter 
proved e^-tremcly severe, and my family 
needed ail the assistance I could give thQia . 

R E^E RE N D J OH N C A N 0. I if^ 

The Operations of the enemy at this time, 
were principally at the southward, where 
General Gates and the southern militia, op- 
posed them with no very great success. 
General Gates, after, his defeat, was suc- 
ceeded by General Green, which gave new 
life and vigour to the militia. About this 
time, General Washington collected his army 
in The neighbourhood of the British, at New- 
Jersey. This excited the wonder of every 
body. Does he intend to make a forcible 
attack on the British in Nexv-York? was the 
general question. Neither did the enemy 
understand his movements. General Wash- 
ington, had large ovens erected, which con- 
firmed the opinion of his intended operation, 
against the enemy at, and about New-York. 

The period now arrived, of a forced march 
of the combined army of French and Ameri- 
cans^ to Williamsburgh, in Virginia. They 
marched through New-Jersey and Pennsyl- 
vania, into Virginia ; and came in the rear of 
Lord Cornwallis, the same day that the French 

fleet, arrived and blockaded the British, at 


Gloucester Point. After a short siege, in 
which the whole British force in that quartei' 
was reduced, General Washington moved 
his ai*my . This movement was so sudden 
and unexpected to me, that I was totally un- 
prepared for it. I had with me only one shift 
of. linen, of which I informed General Clin- 
ton, requesting leave of absence to get more ; 
but to this he objected, and said I must go 
on with them, at all events. When we arrive- 
ed at Newark, I found an old lady, who had 
been a member of my church in New- York. 
I told her my situation, and she furnished me 
with what was needful for the campaign. 
From Newark, we marched to Baltimore. 
There General Clinton's Aid was taken sick, 
and I was ordered to stay with him, till he 
was able to come after the army. The Ma- 
jor's anxiety to follow the army, retarded his 
recovery. However, he attempted and set- 
out ; but after one or two days, he was ob- 
liged to lay by. In a: day or two we set off 
again, but did not reach the army before the 
British capitulated. However, we partook of 
the joy with our brethren. 


Matters being adjusted, the General order- 
ed the return of the army. On my way 
home, I stoped at Mr. Hart's, in Hopewell, 
in New- Jersey, and, after staying there one 
night, started for home. Between Hopewell, 
and the Piscataqua, I met a messenger from 
Scotch Plains, who informed me, he was go- 
ing to get Mr. Hart, to preach a funeral ser- 
mon on the death of Mr. Miller, who was to 
be buried the next day ; unless I would stop 
and preach it. I told him, I would stop ; 
but that he had better get Mr. Hart to 
preach the sermon. He went on, and in- 
formed Mr. Hart of v/hat had passed : Mr. 
Hart said he wished to be excused. Tlie 
duty then devolved on me; one circumstance 
made it very striking to me : It had been a 
private agreement between Mr. Miller and 
myself, that the survivor of us, .if he had 
word of the death, should preach the funeral 
sermon of the other. Never did 1 esteem a 
ministering brother so much, or feel the be- 
reavement so sensibly, as I did Mr. Miller.— »- 
At the funeral, I got information, that my fa,- 
mily had moved ; which was a day?s ride less 


distant. I set off for home, and found them 
well, and an addition of another son, whose 
name was Wi.liam. 

On my return to the army, we encamped at 
Newbury, and erected some huts, and a place 
for public worship, on Lord's days. We had 
three services a day, and preached in rotation ; 
one from each brigade. We continued here 
during the winter, and had frequent reports, 
that the British were negociatiug a peace, 
which occasioned expresses being sent to 
and from the British General at New- York, 
and General Washington. The next spring, 
the British evacuated New- York ; and Gene- 
ral Washington entered the city with his army. 
The army was soon after disbanded, and ^ve 
poor ruined Yorkers returned to our disfigur- 
ed houses. 

My house needed some repairs, and want- 
ed some new furniture ; for the enemy plun- 
dered a great many articles. We collected of 
our church, about thirty seven members, 
out of upwai'ds of two hundred. Some were 


dead, and odiers scattered into almost ever}^ 
part of the union. Some had turned farmers ; 
but the most of these returned to the city. The 
Lord looked graciously upon us : we sooa 
had a large congregation, numbers were sen- 
sibly convicted, and many were brought to 
bow the knee to king Jesus. 

There was an apphcation made to the asso- 
ciation, for a minister to travel as a missiona- 
ry, for one year ; and to make him some al- 
lowance from the association fund. I had 
some intimation of this application before I 
went to the association ; and proposed it to my 
church, that if I was pitched upon as the per- 
son, whether they would consent. They 
agreed to it. My church was, at this time, in 
a very flourishing condition : daily additions 
were making to our number. At one com- 
munion season, there were near forty young 
persons added ; about an equal number of each 
sex. We had meetings constantly, for the 
purpose of conversing, singing and praying ; 
which proved very beneficial, and which was 
kept up for years, and even till my removal 


to Kentucky, before which tune, our number 
of communicaHts in the church exceeded two 

The reason of my removal to Kentucky, I 
shall here state. One Mr. William Wood, 
came from that country, and ga\-e a very ex- 
alted character of the state of it. He made 
several encouraging proposals to me to go 
there, said there was a prospect of usefulness 
in the ministry, the necessity of an old expe- 
rienced minister to take care of a young 
church there, and flattering temporal pros- 
pects for the support of my family. For these 
reasons I concluded to remove. Besides, I was 
considerably in debt, and saw no way of being 
released, but by selling my house and lot. 
This I concluded would clear me, and enable 
me to purchase waggons and horses to carry 
me to Kentucky. I called a church meet- 
ing, and informed them of my intention. 
They treated it as a chimera, and thought 
they could stop me by raising my salary^ 
They, with all possible coolness, left me tc 
determine for mvself. I, immediately, detej - 


mined to go, and desired them to look out 
for a supply. This aroused them, and they 
very affectionately urged me to tarry, I 
told them, if they had desired me to stay 
before I had put it out of my o^^n power, I 
should then have given it up. 

I sold my estate, and commenced my 
journey for Kentucky. I encountered more 
difficulties than I had calculated for. In go- 
ing down the Ohio river, one cf my boats 
unfortunately overset, and turned every thing 
ifito the river. They who were in her, nar- 
rowly escaped, by cutting the ropes which 
tied the horses, so that neither man nor beast 
were lost. But I lost some very valuable 
property, which I never could replace. I 
also lost all the provender for my horses,, 
which at that time was a ^^ery serious mis- 
fortune. However, as there were others in 
company from New-Jersey, and of my ac- 
quaintance, I was amply supplied with that 
necessary article. We landed at Limestone, 
on the 17th of June, A. D. 1787; and soon 
after set out for Washington, in Kentucky, 

120 / 


wht' L safely arrived. I here preached to 
my ompanions and the inhabitants, from 
these words ; '' So we got all safe to land,''^ 

Mr. Wood, on my arrival, took me into 
his own house. The news of my arrival soon 
spread to Lexington ; and Mr, Ambrose Dud- 
ley, and Mr. John Craig, came to see me, 
and urged me to visit Lexington, and preach. 
I went to Lexington, South Elkhorn, and 
Clear Creek, &c. and after tarrying a few days, 
I returned home. Soon after my return, I 
received a letter from Lexington, inviting me 
to remove among them, and enclosing propo- 
sals of what th'_y would allow me. I also re- 
ceived another letter, oFthe same import, from 
Brother Elijah Craig, of Georgetown. I soon 
after moved my family to Lexington ; and 
hired a house of Mr. Robert Parker, ^\ here 
we Uved a twelve month. While here, I re- 
ceived a proposal of land from Brother Elijah 
Craig, with an invitation to come and see it. 
I went, and liked the land, but not the condi- 
tions. I, however, wished for a little time to 
consider of it ; and I set the day I would give 


Inm an answer. Two days before the time 
came, Vvhile I was walking in the garden, 
General Wilkinson came to me and asked 
me, if I had fully determined where to settle. 
I told him, I had not; and that T then had but 
one day to consider of Mr. Craig's proposal. 
He said he came to make me proposals to go 
to Frankfort ; and w ished me to go with him 
and see the plan of a town, which was in the 
hands of my son Daniel, at Frankfort. I 
went and was much pleased, and closed an 
agreement with him, that I would remove 
there, as soon as I could make it convenient. 

My wife, in going to visit this place, had 
the misfortune to fall from her horse, which 
made her a cripple the remainder of her life. 
She was, soon after, seized with the pleurisy, 
which terminated her existence, after lan- 
guishing a short time. We had but just got 
settled in our ugw habitation, when she wt.s 
seized w ith the disorder ; and happy for her, 
I trust, she soon removed to that building of 
God, a *' house not made with hands ^ Eternal 
in the heavens,''^ to which she appeared re- 


signed, and for which I hope, by the grace 
of God, she was prepared. But alas ! 1 was 
too unprepared for such a shock. In all her 
lameness, I had her cheering company and 
conversation, and was enlivened by a hope of 
her recovery. But when this flital stroke 
was given, I was bereft of all consolation, 
and had not the word and power of God sus- 
tained me through it, I must have sunk be- 
neath the stroke. 

The next fall I received a letter from a 
friend in North- Carolina, with whom I had 
intrusted my little concerns there, informing 
me, that the man to whom I had sold my 
land, refused payment, alleging that 1 had 
sold him more than I ever had a title to. This 
was both injurious to my purse and charac- 
ter ; and led me to look over my old papers. 
I found the deed and the necessary papers ; 
the deed was properly authenticated, and ac- 
knowledged and recorded in Rowan, where 
the land h}'. I determined to go and settle 
the business ; and, accordingly, set off, and 
after a Hitigueing journey arri^'ed there. I got 


the county surveyor, and having traced part 
of the line, he found it would take in part 
of land which he claimed and occupied, 
and a spring which ' his family used ; he, 
therefore, begged me to desist, and said he 
v/ould settle the matter without any further 
difficulty. I could have put him to much 
trouble and expence ; but having my object 
answered, I settled the m.atter with him. 

Here I found and obtained another com- 
panion. She w^as the widow of Captain 
Thomas Bryant, and daughter of Colonel 
Jonathan Hunt. She was a communicant in 
a Baptist church in that neighbourhood. As 
she could not adjust her matters, so as to go 
immediately, with me, to Kentucky, I went 
to Charleston, in South- Carolina, where I 
had formerly visited. Here, I v/as pleased to 
find many remaining evidences of the fruits 
of my former labours. I tarried here, up- 
wards of three weeks, at the house of Mr. 
Richard Furman. As Mr. Furman was 
about to take a short journey, he requested 
me to take charge of bis church during his 
absence, whicli I did. From here, I wQiit 


farther Southward, and after an absence of 
nine weeks and three days, I returned to my 
wife. I \'isited an iissociation m hile here, and 
found many difficulties among them. The 
idea of having a moderator, was considered 
as dishonouring Clirist. Their requesting 
hberty of the moderator for every thing which 
thev wished to do, was considered as too 
conformable to the custom of worldly assem- 
blies, and an infringement of christian, liber- 
ties. But, after much altercation on these 
points, they agreed to them ; and the asso- 
ciation was conducted with much decorum. 

.The September following, I returned to 
Kentucky ; but without Mrs. Gano, as she 
was not then ready to remove. The next 
spring I wQwi to North- Carolina, but found 
it would be inconvenient for my ^^ ife to re- 
move before £ill ; I therefore made a visit to 
New^-York and Rhode-Island, accompanied 
by my wife's son, Morgan Bryant. My 
old friends were much pleased to see me ; 
and I arrived back again, by the time my 
wife had appointed to go to Kentucky. I 


preached at many places in my tour to New- 
England ; particulai'ly, in Ncw-Brimswick, 
where I preached twice to very crowded 
assemblies. On my return to Kentucky, I 
preached at Philadelphia, and many places in 
the states of Maryland and Virginia, agreea- 
ble to appointments I had made, four or five 
months previously. We started for Kentucky, 
on the 30th of September, 1794, and arrived 
safely without any thing material taking place. 
On my return, I found the family all Vvcll ; 
and that a report of my son William being- 
drowned, which I heard while in Carolina, 
was without foundation. Here a new^ scene 
opened. My wife, saw children that had 
families, whom she never sav/ before; and 
my children, saw a mother whom they had 
no knowledge of. This, I believe, made 
them feel m.utually awkward.. 

The Town- Fork church, of which I was 
ti member, and whose meetings I endeavour- 
ed constantly to attend, had been highly fa- 
voured, during my absence, by the neighbour- 
ing ministers, especialy, Mr, Dudly, who 

126 MEMOIRS or THE * 

had generally attended their church meetings 
and had administered at their communion 
seasons. The church meeting was frequent- 
ly held at Frankfort, though there was no 
settled church there of any denomination. 
Mr. Hickman had frequently preached in the 
assembly room of the state house ; and Mr. 
Shannon, a Presbyterian minister, had given 
some encouragement, that he ^vould preach 
there some part of his time. I agreed to 
supply them every first and third sabbath in 
the month ; and Mr. Shannon the remainder. 
I supplied them, in this way, through the 
w inter ; and also the church at Town Fork, 
which kept me constantly employed ; for the 
distance between the l\^ o places was nearly 
tw^enty miles. 

Several of the members of the Town Fork 
church, frequentl) expressed to me their 
w ishes, to have me live nearer to them ; and 
finally carried it to the church. I thought it 
my duty to make the reply, that it ^^ as out of 
my power to procure a settlement among 
ihem ; but if they could devise any method 


to render it possible, I had no objections to 
try it. Accordingly, they appointed one or 
two men to inquire, and see what could be 
done. In the mean time Mr. Lewis oiFered 
me a small place of about thirty acres, the 
greatest part of which \'vas cleared. He pro- 
posed giving me a lease of it, during my life, 
provided I lived there ; which was to be his 
proportion towards my support. I conchid- 
ed to except this offer ; and, accordingly, in 
March I796, I moved there, and continued 
for two years, but found it very mconvenient. 
We had no stable for the cattle, and but a 
small house, hardly sufficient to contain our 
family. I had no means of making my ac- 
commodations better, except I sold my pro- 
perty at Frankfort. This I did not vvish to 
do, as 1 had but a life lease of it. I thoughtj 
if I returned to Frankfort, and sold pait of 
my property, and expended the proceeds of 
the sale on the remainder, it would be pre- 
paring a more comfortable home for my fa- 
mily, and which would not terminate at my 
death. Accordingly, in the spring of the 
vear 1798, I returned to Frankfort, and erect- 

\28 MEMOIRS OF Ttt£ 

ed a comfortable log house, which I was pre- 
vented from entirely finishing by the cold 
weather's setting in. In October, of that 
year, I had the misfortune to fall from a horse, 
and fracture my shoulder-blade ; which ren- 
dered that arm useless, for some time. Soon 
after this misfortune, I was seized, in my bed 
O'uQ morning, very suddenly, with a paralytic 
stroke, which affected the whole of one side 
of me, one ear, an eye and half of my face, 
and rendered me almost speechless. This 
remained for about ten months, when I par- 
tially recovered. 1 have now, abundant cause 
to sing of the mer»ues and goodness of the 
Lord, that during all this illness, my reason 
was as good as ever it was I, even ai this 
time, am more or less afflicted with it ; but I 
have rode on horse back, ridnig but a few 
miles in a day. I have preached several times 
at Frankfort, setting in a chair. 

In the spring of tlie year 1798, I preached 
on Lord's day in the assembly room of the 
state house. My son Stephen, who lives in 
Providence, (Rhode Island), this year paid me 


a visit, but did not stay long. He went to 
Cincinnati, (Ohio), to see his brother John. 
My youngest son William, was then a clerk 
in my son John's Prothonotary Office. He 
v/as anxious to have a collegiate education ; 
and his two brother's encouraged him in it. 
He, accordingly, with his brother Stephen, 
came over to consult me upon it, and I con- 
sented. They started for Rhode Island, and 
went by the way of Cincinnati, and I accom- 
panied them as far as my son Richard's, at 
Eagle Creek. Here I took my last leave of 
my son William, who appeared much affect- 
ed, and, afterwards, said he had taken his last 
fai'ewell of his Father. They proceeded on 
their journey and proposed visiting Doctor 
Thane, whose wife was sister to him. The 
dear youth reached them, sick with a fever, 
of which he soon after died. He died, re- 
j^igned to his fate, and in hopt s of a blessed 
immortality; as I afterwards learnt by letter 
from my son Stephen. Though his death 
much affected vat, yet when I heard he dted 
resigned, it appeared to me that it was all 
right ; and that God had done all things ^\^ell. 



My sincere wish is, that all my children may 
live, 'till they are prepared to die ; and that my 
prayers may be redoubled lor them, knowing 
that ere long, both they and myself, must quit 
this stage of action, and go to judgment. I 
see now, nothing worth living for ; but to be 
more devoted to God, and die advantage of 
my family, and the church of God. And, 
indeed it appears to me latterly, that I have 
lived beyond my usefulness ; but I know I 
must wait for God's time, when he will un- 
ravel all the mysteries of his Providence. I 
sometimes wonder, why God ever conduct- 
ed me to Kentucky, when so little fruit or 
good eifect of my poor labours have appear- 
ed, at least to myse.f ! why, in this half dead 
condition, I am yet continued in life ! Yet, 
I have more cause to wonder, that ever God 
made me instrumental of good, at any time 
of life, or any where in the world ; and that 
now I should be laid by, as an instrument 
out of use. • 

Thus far the narrative is written by Mr. 
Gano himself. An account of the remairi- 


ing claj^s of this godly man, is compiled from 
the documents of his son Daniel. 

In September of the year 1798, Mr. Gano 
fell from his horse and broke his shoulder 
blade, of which he so far recovered, as to 
attend the succeeding session of the assembly ; 
but which, it is probable, was the cause of 
the paralytic stroke, as mentioned by him 
in the pages . preceding. This visitation of 
Divine Providence, he sustained with holy 
fortitude and composure. Although, this 
continued v>^ith him till his death, yet he 
preached several times supported in his bed ; 
and attended every association, except one, 
until h'.s death. During his last illness, he 
frequently talked to his wife of the approach 
of death, with the greatest composure ; and 
often requested his friends not to shed a tear 
for him, for he should arrive at home. 

About three months previous to his death, 
he requested his wife to sing the hymn, 
*' Ah lovely appearance of death ;" which he 
also requested might be sung at his funeral ; 


which was done by his wife and daughter, 
under extreme affliction. On Saturday e\ en • 
ing, he performed family worship ; and on 
Lord's day morning, after hearing a chapter 
read for that purpose, he was taken very ill, 
and conveyed to bed. On the Wednesday 
night following, he was seized with convul- 
sion fits ; and on Thursday night about ten 
o'clock, August 10, 1804, the spirit of this 
godly man, winged its way to the mansion 
of peace. 

About eight v.eeks previous to his depar- 
ture, he informed his wife, that he had the 
following dream, viz. '' That he saw the 
state of a departed spirit ; and had a clearer 
view of it than he ever had before in all his 
reflections upon it. That he was taken sick, 
unto death, and saw his wife, children, and 
friends around him, \\ hich was ver}' gratify- 
ing. He felt h'-mself struck with death, and 
Regan to stiffen; — his hearing and eye-L>ight 
go from him, and felt himself die ; but that 
the body knew notlnng of this. The spirit, 
hovered o\'er the coiSin, until the corps was 


carried to the grave ; and the family had taken 
their leave. When the coffin was let down, 
some obstructions occurred,'' (which was the 
case owing to the grave being dug too near 
that of his first wife,) '' the spirit took its 
flight to the abode of never ending happiness." 

The following account of the last days of 
Mr. Gano, is taken from a letter to one of 
his children, written by Mr. William Hick- 
man, who was much wtth^ and esteemed by 
Mr. Gano.' The letter, I believe, is nearly, 
verbatim. Mr. Hickman observes : '' that 
hearing Mr. Gano had a paralytic shock, he 
immediately went to see him, and asked him 
how he did ? He answered that he was half 
dead. I did not then believe he would ever 
have come out of his house, again, alive. 
He seemed willing to resign all to God, and 
to bear what he was pleased to lay on him ; 
wishing the prayers of God's people, and 
that the travelling preachers would call, con- 
verse and preach. At such times, which 
frequently occurred, he would sit in his chair 
and exhort to duty, and to flee from vice. 



His longing, to get amongst his brethren, 
so raised his spirits, that in about a year, he 
ventured, in a carriage, to the Town- Fork, 
Bryants, and other places. When we ap- 
prehended his fatigues were too great, while 
preaching, some friend would support him, 
when he would preach with renewed ar- 

It was the pleasure of heaven, about this time 
to visit the state with the out-pouring of his spi- 
rit. This blessed harvest of souls, appeared to 
iicrease his joys, being desirous of being, as 
in years past, in the vineyard, although his half 
dead side forbid it. When a little recovered, 
he would venture to the meeting house, on 
horse-back, where he would exhort, preach, 
pray and give counsel, sound and good, while 
he was supported by two persons to steady 
him. At other times he would go to the water 
side at the administration of the ordinance of 
baptism, and advocate that mode. 

My visits to this father in Zion, being 
frequent, he one day, wished to have the 


worship of God attended in his house. I 
spoke from these words ; " Lord help me.'''' 
I discovered liim to be much in tears, and 
he appeared much affected. When dismiss- 
ed, while lying on the bed, he seized my 
hand, and in an extacy exclaimed, '^ The 
Lord has helped me!" His cup appeared 
full and running over ; and he often express- 
ed a wish to depart, and be with Christ, ^vhich 
was far better ; but patience he seemed to 
crave, and I believe God granted his request ; 
for he had every mark of a soul waiting on 

On the Lord's day week, before his de- 
cease, I was in the pulpit, and observed one 
of the connections pass hastily across the 
floor and whisper to another, which led me 
to think some change had taken place. After 
worship, I inquired, and heard he was very 
ill, and near his last. I went to see him, and 
he appeared much altered, which induced me 
to think he was near home. He appeared 
smiling, and in no great misery ; nor would 
he ever own that he was. His appetite failed 


him, and in the course of that week he wore 
away much ; yet his senses and reason con- 
tinued. Myself and his family, set up the 
whole night, and I asked him a number of 
questions, being desirous of knowing the ex- 
ercise of his mind. He appeared perma- 
nently fixed on Jesus ^ as the rock of ages, I 
asked him, what I should request of God in 
his behalf? His answer was, that he m.ight 
enjoy his right mind, and be resigned to God's 
wdlL His anxious eyes were upon his weep- 
ing children. The night before he expired, 
I went to see him, went to the bed side and 
took hold of his hand, and asked if he knew 
nie ? he motioned in the affirmative. I asked 
him if he was in much pain ? he spoke so as 
to be heard, and said no, I then asked him, 
if he wanted to be \vith Jesus ? lie said yes ! 
This was the last Mord, which could be un- 
derstood, at least, so far as my recollection 
serves me. I went to prayer ^^'ith the family 
and friends, after ^hich, he was taken ^vith 
a fit, which continued with but little altera- 
tion till morning ; when business called me 
away. I bid him flirewell in my mind, no 


more expecting to see him in life. I went to 
visit another sick person in the course of the 
day, and called again in the evening, v/hen I 
found him still breathing. It had been my 
wish, for years, to close his eyes in death, 
should I survive him ; but another call hap- 
pening that evening, I left him in the hands 
of a faithful and able friend, and about ten 
o'clock of that night, being the 10th, day of 
August 1804, he got dismission from the 
church militant to the church triumphant ; 
being in the 78th year of his age. 

M 2 




S the foUoM ing hymns and pass are close-- 
ly connected with the subject of the preced- 
ing Biography, I have ventured to insert 
them by way of Appendix, presuming they 
will be gratifying to the friends of the deceas- 
ed. The hymn, composed by Mr. Newman, 
originated in the following manner. ^ Mr. 
Gano had an appointment, in the year 1755, 
to preach in Virginia. He had begun his 
journey for that purpose, and hiA proceeded 
as far as Mr. Newman's, when a freshet pre- 
vented his passing the river. Know-ing Mr. 
Newman to possess a poetical turn, he re- 
quested him to compose a few lines on the 
occasion, which Mr. Newman readily com- 
plied with. It is not offercd to the public 
as a specimen of correct or elegant poetry ,, 


but as the spontaneous effusions of a produc- 
tive mind. The pass was also written by Mr. 
Newman during the French war, and was 
occasioned by the following circumstance. 
Mr. Gano was travelling, as an itinerant 
preacher, and as it was dangerous to ti^avel 
without a pass, he requested Mr. Newman, 
who was a magistrate, to write him one. Mr. 
Newman with cheerfuhiess immediately com- 
plied. The Hymn, ''Ah lovely appearance of 
death" was a favourite of Mr. Gano's, and he 
requested it might be sung at his funeral, 
which was performed by his afflicted widow 
and daughter Hubbel. 





^omfiosed by Samuel JKewman^ Esq. of Virginia^ in 
the year 1755, on the Rev. John Gano. 

O ! GLORIOUS King, thy works of grace 
Are wonderful unto this place, 
Unasked for, thou didst prepare, 
And sent thy servant Gano here* 


With joyful tidings, sounding sweet, 
Of Christ, the Saviour, so complete ; 
And yet the sinner for to awe, 
And boldly to proclaim the law. 


Which done, a work he tho't most meet, 
A harbinger sought a retreat, 
Not back, but from us for to go 
To Carolina, you must know. 



With hasty steps, with news of grace, 
To Adam's fallen, guilty race, 
The Sliver trump he tho't to sound, 
In a small place, within that ground. 


But mark ! Virginia's happy gain. 
Another warning to attain, 
Of sin and satan to beware, 
The clouds assist to stop him here. 

With waters they the rivers fill, 
Across the road, from hill to hill ; 
Thus Providence has clear'd the way.; 
To give to us another day. 


Now Lord, in thy protecting hand, 
Thy servant takes a still command ; 
All things to work thy good always, 
Who fear thy name, and seek thy praise. 


And when no longer he must stay, 
.O Lord ! go with him, guide his way, 
And with thy truth and mercy sweet. 
Ever direct his wandering feet^ 



In living pastures fresh and green. 
Do thou his rod and staff i*emain ; 
And his thirsty straits and needs, 
To living fountain^ thou him lea^l. 



Whilst going through this vale of tear^ ' 

Keep him from boding doubts and fears ; / 

And when his work is finish'd there, 
Return thy sen^ant, Gano, hcr^. 


And when from here he back doth roam.^ 
Be with thy servant, guide him home ; 
And help us all to praise thy name, 
Thy servant still to praise thy najcne. 

14ft AfPENDIX. 


And brother, dear, whilst far away, 
Remember me, I humbly pray ; 
Me, and my wife, and children small. 
Up to Jehovah, offer all. 


Offer, also, Virginia's land, 
That dreary place of barren sand, 
That Christ might make it fruitful be, 
O ! pray for us to God most high. 


Dear brother, finally, farewell, 
May Jesus, by his spirit dwell, 
Within our hearts, and own the cauae. 
Teaching to love, and keep his laws^ 



Was covip.osed by Mr. Aewman, on Mr. Gano, tvlmi 
• on a journey to Carolina. 

Go, go, -sweet youth, go spread thy master's theme, 
Tor well thou'st learnt his attributes and name. 
Go, in his strength, no cold will thee annoy^ 
Go, make the hills and vallies echo joy. 
Pi'oclaim the Saviour, this is all thy theme, 
Jesus, the Lord, and his blest Gospels' scheme. 
Go, sound the trump, for well thou can'st it blow, 
Jesus, the Lord, and his blest merits show. 
Lift up his ensign, show his purple gore, 
That from his side, for sinners, out did pour: 
O! let them, waving in the wind, appear. 
Shew them their sins, the cruel sword or spear 
That pierced his side to make this crimson dye, 
Perhaps they'll tremble, and their sins destroy ; 
And own the Lord and his compassions sweet, 
And fall before him, victims at his feet. 


O ! let, also, the blazing ensign fly, 
Awaken sinners, tell them they must die. 
O ! sound the dreadful thunders of the law. 
Which pleads perfection, and without a flaw. 
The soul that sins, or breaks the law must die, 
And damnM must be to all eternity ; ' 

They must, they must, I tremble for to tell, 
They must endure the scorching flames of hell. 
Go, then, sweet Gano, in thy master's name, 
These glorious truths most boldly to proclaim- 
Fear not \he wicked, nor the serpent's rod, 
Thou hast for strength, an omnipotent GocL 
O ! precious Gano, here thy comfort stands, 
Thou'rt in the way, obeying his commands ; 
Rejoice, sweet saint, the ways with pleasure cro^vis, 
'Till he thy soul with living pleasures drown ^ 
And Christians all of high or low degree, 
For Jesus sake, this I demand of thee. 
Stop not the bearer, through any vain pretence, 
Nor use unto him any insolence. 
Rather protect him from the base design 
Of hellish men, that should against him join. 
A subject true he is to George our King, 
O ! join with him, to Jesus praises sing. 

Ye magistrates, who lore sweet Jesus* namct 
Ye need not fear to sign the veiy same. 
I, as your brother, under George our King, 
Do s^gn this iiass^ and seal it with my ring. 


The foltowing HYMJ^ he requested (fireviou^ to ht% ^ 
death) might be sung at his funeral^ which was at* 
cordingly done. 

" Ah \ loTely appearance of death. 

What sight upon earth is so fair ? 
Not all the gay pageants that breathy. 

Can with a dead body compare I 
With solemn delight I survey, 

The corpse, when the spirit is fled^ 
In love with the beautiful ciuy, 

And longing to lie in its stead. 

How blest is our brother, bereft 

Of all that could Durthen his mind ; 


^ - 
How easy the' soul that has left, 

This wearisome body behind ! 
Of evil incapable thou, 

Whose relics with envy I see, 
No longer in misery now, 

No longer a sinner like me. 


This earth is affected no more, 

With sickness, or shaken with pain ; 
The war in the members is o'er, 

And never shall vex him again 1 
No anger, henceforward, or shame, 

Shall redden this innocent clay j 
Extinct is the animal flame. 

And passion is vanished away. 


This lanquishing head is at rest, 

Its thinking and aching aro- o*er ; 
This quiet, immoveable breast, 

Is heav*d by afiliction no more ! 
This heart is no longer the seat, 

Of trouble and torturing pain ; 
It ceases to flutter and beat. 

It never shall flatter again^. 



The lids he so seldom could close, 

(By sorrow forbidden to sleep,) 
Seard up in a lengthy repose, 

Have strangely forgotten to weep. 
The fountains can yield no supplies, 

These hollows from water are free, 
The tears are all wip'd from these eyigs, 

And evil they never shall see. 

To mourn and to suffer is min«, 

While bound in a prison, I breathe ; 
And still for deliverance pine, 

And press to the issues of death. 
What now, with my tears I bedew, 

O might I thi-s moment become 1 
My spirit created anew, 

My flesh be consign *d to the tomb. 





DEC 4 - 1931